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Table 4 Associations between childhood abuse (< 16 years) and past year physical assault victimisation (≥ 16 years) (N = 21,810)

From: Cycles of violence in England and Wales: the contribution of childhood abuse to risk of violence revictimisation in adulthood

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Sig. AOR 95% CIs Sig. AOR 95% CIs Sig. AOR 95% CIs
   LL UL    LL UL    LL UL
Childhood psychological abuse      < 0.001 2.37 1.84 3.06 < 0.01 1.61 1.13 2.31
Childhood physical abuse      NS     NS    
Childhood sexual abuse      < 0.01 1.61 1.21 2.14 NS    
Childhood witnessing domestic violence     < 0.01 1.50 1.14 1.98 NS    
Childhood abuse count None (ref.) < 0.001        < 0.001    
Single type < 0.001 2.16 1.70 2.75     < 0.001 1.86 1.42 2.45
Multiple types < 0.001 3.37 2.68 4.24     < 0.001 2.25 1.53 3.32
Sex Female < 0.001 0.68 0.57 0.81 < 0.001 0.67 0.56 0.80 < 0.001 0.69 0.58 0.82
Age 50–59 (ref.) < 0.001     < 0.001     < 0.001    
16–19 < 0.001 2.13 1.40 3.27 < 0.01 2.08 1.36 3.19 < 0.01 2.07 1.35 3.17
20–29 < 0.001 2.20 1.68 2.88 < 0.001 2.16 1.65 2.83 < 0.001 2.17 1.66 2.83
30–39 < 0.01 1.55 1.19 2.03 < 0.01 1.55 1.18 2.03 < 0.01 1.54 1.18 2.02
40–49 < 0.05 1.37 1.05 1.80 < 0.05 1.35 1.03 1.76 < 0.05 1.36 1.04 1.78
Ethnicity White < 0.01 1.72 1.26 2.36 < 0.001 1.75 1.28 2.39 < 0.01 1.72 1.26 2.35
Deprivation Least deprived (ref.) < 0.001     < 0.001     < 0.001    
Most deprived—1 < 0.001 1.92 1.44 2.55 < 0.001 1.88 1.41 2.50 < 0.001 1.91 1.43 2.54
2 < 0.01 1.52 1.13 2.04 < 0.01 1.52 1.13 2.05 < 0.01 1.52 1.13 2.04
3 NS 1.13 0.82 1.54 NS 1.117 0.82 1.53 NS 1.12 0.82 1.54
4 NS 1.26 0.93 1.71 NS 1.251 0.92 1.70 NS 1.26 0.93 1.71
  1. Notes. Limited to adults aged 16–59 years who completed the CSEW 2015/2016 self-completion modules. AOR adjusted odds ratio, 95% CIs 95% confidence intervals, LL lower limit, UL upper limit
  2. Model 1: Childhood abuse count was entered in a regression, controlling for sociodemographics (sex, age, ethnicity, and deprivation quintiles)
  3. Model 2: All childhood abuse types were entered in a regression, controlling for sociodemographics
  4. Model 3: All childhood abuse types and childhood abuse count were entered in a regression, controlling for sociodemographics