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Table 1 Participant characteristics: data from 3 British birth cohort studies and 21 repeated cross-sectional English studies

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in blood pressure: co-ordinated analysis of 147,775 participants from repeated birth cohort and cross-sectional datasets, 1989 to 2016

  Birth cohort study in midlife (43–46 years), year of outcome measurement (birth year) Repeated cross-sectional study (≥ 25 years), year of outcome measurement
1989 (1946) 2003 (1958) 2016 (1970) 1994 2003 2016
Outcomes
 Sample size 3186 8610 6861 11,427 7910 3981
 Systolic blood pressure, mean (SD) mmHg* 125.8 (15.5) 126.4 (17.0) 124.1 (15.5) 133.6 (18.3) 129.9 (19.1) 125.9 (17.2)
 Diastolic blood pressure, mean (SD) mmHg* 81.6 (10.4) 78.8 (11.2) 77.1 (11.2) 75.1 (8.9) 74.9 (11.5) 73.5 (11.3)
 Hypertension, %** 23.8% 28.4% 24.5% 35.5% 33.8% 31.6%
 Blood pressure-lowering medication, % 3.8% 6.1% 8.1% 13.5% 14.3% 17.9%
Socioeconomic data
 Social class at birth–4years, % manual 74.4% 72.7% 70.8%
 Own education attainment, % degree 6.6% 8.4% 24.1% 11.1% 19.3% 32.0%
  1. With valid BP, medication, and SEP data
  2. *Observed BP values (i.e. not adjusted for use of antihypertensive medication); HSE sample size is unweighted, and estimates are weighted
  3. **Hypertension: SBP/DBP ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or on BP-lowering medication