Skip to main content

Table 1 The characteristics of the women in BiB and UPBEAT

From: Do nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics improve the prediction of pregnancy-related disorders? Findings from a UK birth cohort with independent validation

Characteristic Born in Bradford, n = 8212 UPBEAT, n = 859
Age, mean (SD) 27 (5.63) 30 (5.47)
Body mass index, mean (SD) 26.14 (5.73) 36.37 (4.98)
Smoking in pregnancy, n (%) 1420 (17.3) 133 (15.5)
Nulliparous, n (%) 3382 (41.2) 396 (46.1)
Ethnicity, n (%)
White European 3629 (44.2) 573 (66.7)
South Asian 4085 (49.7) 51 (5.9)
Caribbean/African (Black) 152 (1.9) 164 (19.1)
Others 346 (4.2) 71 (8.3)
Gestational diabetes WHO, n (%)a 666 (8.1) 90 (10.5)
Gestational diabetes IADSPG, n (%)b / 249 (29)
Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, n (%) 803 (9.8) 79 (9.2)
Small for gestational age, n (%) 1139 (13.9) 59 (6.9)
Large for gestational age, n (%) 617 (7.5) 102 (11.9)
Preterm birth, n (%)c 430 (5.2) 39 (4.5)
Spontaneous preterm birth, n (%) 260 (3.2) 15 (1.6)
  1. Data are expressed as mean (SD) or n (%) as appropriate. Data were 100% complete. Maternal age and weight/height (used to calculate body mass index (BMI)) were measured at recruitment. Smoking was defined as any smoking during pregnancy. Parity was defined as this pregnancy being their first child (nulliparous) or having previously given birth (multiparous). Ethnicity was based on self-report
  2. aGestational diabetes was diagnosed in the Born in Bradford according to the modified World Health Organization (WHO) criteria operating at the time of the study
  3. bIn UPBEAT, gestational diabetes was defined according to the guidelines recommended by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADSPG). We conducted a sensitivity analysis using the WHO criteria in UPBEAT to check the differences were not due to different GDM criteria
  4. cPreterm birth includes spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth (birth < 37 weeks gestation)