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Table 2 Comparison of median and interquartile ranges in haematology values measured in nMI, UM, and SM cases

From: Machine learning approaches classify clinical malaria outcomes based on haematological parameters

  Non-malaria infections (a), N = 978 Uncomplicated malaria (b), N = 703 a vs b Severe malaria (c), N = 526 b vs c a vs c a vs b vs c
Parameters Median IQR Median IQR P value Median IQR P value P value P value
WBC indices
 WBC count (103/μL) 9.3 7.0–12.8 8.3 6.3–10.8 < 0.001 11.6 8.3–16.6 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Lymphocyte count (103/μL) 3.0 2.0–4.5 1.9 1.3–3.0 < 0.001 3.8 2.4–6.0 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Mixed cell count (103/μL) 0.8 0.5–1.1 0.5 0.3–0.8 < 0.001 0.9 0.5–1.4 < 0.001 0.004 < 0.001
 Neutrophil count (103/μL) 4.8 3.3–7.6 5.4 3.7–7.6 0.115 6.5 4.4–9.4 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Lymphocyte percent (%) 35.8 22.6–47.8 24.7 16.8–36.8 < 0.001 33.9 26.5–44.4 < 0.001 0.964 < 0.001
 Mixed cell percent (%) 8.6 6.7–11.0 6.9 5.0–9.2 < 0.001 8.2 5.5–11.3 < 0.001 0.012 < 0.001
 Neutrophil percent (%) 54.4 41.7–69.0 67.8 53.7–77.1 < 0.001 55.8 46.6–66.2 < 0.001 0.568 < 0.001
RBC indices
 RBC count (106/μL) 4.5 4.2–5.0 4.1 3.6–4.5 < 0.001 2.4 1.7–3.2 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Hb level (g/dL) 11.0 10.1–11.8 10.1 8.8–11.2 < 0.001 5.6 4.1–7.4 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Haematocrit (%) 34.5 32–37.1 31.1 27.2–34.8 < 0.001 16.7 12.0–21.1 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 RBC distribution width (%) 15.1 14.0–16.6 15.7 14.7–17.1 < 0.001 18.1 16.2–20.1 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Mean cell volume (fL) 76.0 71.2–80.3 76.0 72.0–81.0 0.510 70.0 64.7–75.4 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Mean corpuscular Hb (pg) 23.7 21.8–25.6 24.9 23.0–26.4 < 0.001 23.8 21.5–26.7 0.001 0.006 < 0.001
 Mean cell Hb concentration (g/dL) 31.6 29.6–32.5 32.3 31.5–33.3 < 0.001 35.1 31.2–37.4 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Platelet indices
 Platelet count (103/μL) 292.0 226.0–360.0 140.0 92.0–216.0 < 0.001 98.0 61.0–156.0 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Mean platelet volume (fL) 8.2 7.6–8.9 8.1 7.5–8.9 0.186 6.9 6.4–7.8 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Platelet distribution width (fL) 15.0 13.9–15.4 14.5 12.4–15.6 0.005 15 12.0–17.3 < 0.001 0.121 < 0.001
  1. P value—Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post hoc tests
  2. P values were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with post hoc tests. The parameters include WBC indices, RBC indices, and platelet indices. All the haematological parameters were significantly different between the nMI, UM, and SM (P < 0.001)