Skip to main content

Table 1 Overview of the key characteristics of articles included the review

From: Duration of palliative care before death in international routine practice: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study author and citation Country UNDP HDI WHPCA palliative care development Study design No. of patients % patients alive at end of study period Age Gender (% female) Ethnicity (% White Caucasian) Type of disease Type of palliative care service Level of analysis Duration of palliative care (days) Statistical summary reported Terminology used to report duration of palliative care Hawker’s criteria rating (score)
Aeckerle, 2013 [22] Germany Very high 4b RO 225 9% 66* 100% U Malignant SPCU Local 59* Median Survival Fair (26)
Alsirafy, 2013 [23] Egypt Medium 3a RO 123 0% 53* 57% U Malignant SPCU Local 66* Median Survival Fair (23)
Bakitas, 2013 [24] USA Very high 4b RO 132 13% 76* 47% 98% Non-malignant Combined Local 21* Median Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Beernaert, 2013 [25] Belgium Very high 4b RO 577 0% U 51% U Mixed Combined National 17.95* Median Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Cheung, 2013 [26] USA Very high 4b RO 5420 0% 82 72% 95% Mixed SPCU National 17.67* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Corbett, 2013 [27] Australia Very high 4b PO 276 46% 61 42% U Malignant Combined Local 34* Median Referral-to-death Fair (22)
D’Angelo, 2013 [28] Italy Very high 4b RO 5320 9% 74 50% U Malignant Combined Local 21*, 38.8 Median and mean Survival Fair (27)
Dong, 2013 [29] USA Very high 4b PO 1423 17% 73‡§ 60% U Mixed SPCU Regional 95.44‡† Mean Referral-to-death Good (28)
Eti, 2013 [30] USA Very high 4b RO 1837 73% 70* 60% U Mixed SPCU Local 4* Median Length-of-stay Fair (24)
Gerber, 2013 [31] USA Very high 4b PO 48 U U U U Unspecified SPCU Local 7* Median Length-of-stay Poor (15)
Harris, 2013 [32] USA Very high 4b RO 8669 0% 75 58% U Mixed SPCU Regional 31* Median Length-of-stay Fair (24)
Hussain, 2013 [33] UK Very high 4b RO 62 0% 67 50% 100% Non-malignant Community/home Local 336* Median Referral-to-death Good (32)
Kelley, 2013 [34] USA Very high 4b RO 1064 0% 84 54% 85% Mixed SPCU National 49* Median Length-of-stay Fair (26)
Mack, 2013 [35] USA Very high 4b RO 24,226 ≤ 10% U 48% U Malignant Combined National 15.53*, 45.08‡† Median and mean Referral-to-death Good (28)
Meng, 2013 [36] USA Very high 4b RO 136 0% 87 78% 70% Mixed SPCU Regional 15*, 47.9 Median and mean Length-of-stay Good (29)
Mercadante, 2013 [37] Italy Very high 4b PO 236 14% 73 50% U Malignant SPCU Regional 18.4 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (26)
Nabal, 2013 [38] Spain Very high 4a PO 698 26% 74 40% U Malignant Community/home Regional 65 Mean Referral-to-death Good (28)
Nevadunsky, 2013 [39] USA Very high 4b RO 49 0% 61 U 35% Malignant Combined Local 16* Median Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Pattenden, 2013 [40] UK Very high 4b PO 80 6% 81 39% 91% Non-malignant Community/home National 41.41* Median Survival Good (29)
Redahan, 2013 [41] Ireland Very high 4b RO 48 0% 64 33% U Non-malignant Unspecified Local 12* Median Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Sengupta, 2013 [42] USA Very high 4b RO 4375 U U 45% 91% Mixed Combined National 16.2*, 65.3 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair
(19)
Speer, 2013 [43] USA Very high 4b RO 279 0% 81* 56% 34% Mixed Community/home Local 16* Median Length-of-stay Fair (22)
Wallace, 2013 [44] Ireland Very high 4b RO 92 22% 77 65% U Non-malignant General hospital ward Local 4.6 Mean Referral-to-death Good (28)
Weckmann, 2013 [45] USA Very high 4b RO 98 0% U U U Mixed General hospital ward Local 13.16 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (21)
Zdenkowski, 2013 [46] Australia Very high 4b RO 550 33%§ 64‡d 50%d U Malignant Combined Regional 77* Median Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Zheng, 2013 [47] USA Very high 4b RO 817 0% 87 70% 89% Mixed Community/home Regional 23.5*, 93 Median and mean Length-of-stay Fair (26)
Bogasky, 2014 [48] USA Very high 4b RO 3,008,137 17% U 58% U Mixed Combined National 19*, 83 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (25)
Brown, 2014 [49] USA Very high 4b RO 144 0% 60*§ 100% 68%d Malignant Combined Local 35.5* Median Referral-to-death Good (30)
Casarett, 2014 [50] USA Very high 4b RO 49,370 16% 79 56% 89% Mixed SPCU Regional 24.74‡† Mean Length-of-stay Good (29)
Chai, 2014 [51] Canada Very high 4b PO 129 0% 71 55% U Malignant Community/home Local 92*, 145.85 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Eastman, 2014 [52] Australia Very high 4b RO 6004 35% U U U Unspecified SPCU Regional 12.8 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (24)
Fullerton, 2014 [53] Australia Very high 4b RO 38 11% U U U Unspecified SPCU Local 15.1 Mean Length-of-stay Poor (13)
Guay, 2014 [54] USA Very high 4b RO 435 U 57* 54% 62% Malignant Community/home Local 214.91* Median Survival Good (29)
Hui, 2014 [55] USA Very high 4b RO 368 0% 60 52% 62% Malignant Combined Local 62.33* Median Referral-to-death Good (31)
Kang, 2014 [56] Taiwan Very high 4a RO 2154 32% 74 49% U Mixed SPCU National 10.41‡† Mean Length-of-stay Fair (26)
Kao, 2014 [57] Taiwan Very high 4a RO 2020 15% 58* 41% U Malignant General hospital ward Regional 33.71* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Keim-Malpass, 2014 [58] USA Very high 4b RO 30 0% 31‡§ 51%§ 79%§ Malignant General hospital ward Local 12.8 Mean Referral-to-death Good (29)
Koivu, 2014 [59] Finland Very high 4a RO 138 0% 75* 64% U Malignant SPCU Regional 32 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (23)
Obermeyer, 2014 [60] USA Very high 4b RO 18,165 0% 80 52% 88% Malignant Combined National 11* Median Length-of-stay Fair (26)
Olmsted, 2014 [61] USA Very high 4b RO 77,267 0% U 2%§ 71%§ Mixed Combined National 23.63* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Scheffey, 2014 [62] USA Very high 4b RO 1368 0% U U U Mixed SPCU Regional 15* Median Length-of-stay Fair (25)
Seow, 2014 [63] Canada Very high 4b RO 3912 0% 75* 52% U Mixed Community/home Regional 73 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (26)
Sexauer, 2014 [64] USA Very high 4b RO 53 0% 64 51% U Malignant Combined Local 7.98* Median Length-of-stay Fair (27)
Shin, 2014 [65] USA Very high 4b RO 610 20% 59 47% 66% Malignant SPCU Local 32.53*, 8 Median and mean Survival Good (29)
Unroe, 2014 [66] USA Very high 4b RO 3771 17% 79 59% 62% Mixed Combined National 22*, 84.5 Median and mean Referral-to-death Poor (17)
Wachterman, 2014 [67] USA Very high 4b RO 1415 16% 75 0% 82% Mixed Combined National 16.71* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Yamagishi, 2014 [68] Japan Very high 4b RO 693 0% 72 40% U Malignant Community/home National 35* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Yeung, 2014 [69] USA Very high 4b RO 6982 0% U 49% 89% Malignant SPCU National 13* Median Length-of-stay Good (28)
Alsirafy, 2015 [70] Saudi Arabia Very high 3a RO 328 0% U 50% U Malignant Combined Local 16.1 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (23)
Chiang, 2015 [71] Taiwan Very high 4a RO 566 0% 69 39% U Malignant Combined National 23*, 54.7 Median and mean Referral-to-death Good (30)
Choi, 2015 [72] South Korea Very high 3a RO 84 0% 64* § 35%§ U Malignant SPCU Local 12.33*, 26.25‡† Median and mean Length-of-stay Fair (24)
Colman, 2015 [73] Canada Very high 4b RO 24 0% 57 46% U Mixed Combined Local 14* Median Referral-to-death Fair (25)
Dingfield, 2015 [74] USA Very high 4b RO 125,634 3% 78 56% 87% Mixed SPCU National 53 Mean Length-of-stay Good (30)
Dougherty, 2015 [75] USA Very high 4b RO 85,581 14% 74 52% 88% Mixed SPCU National 79.57‡† Mean Referral-to-death Fair (26)
El-Jawahri, 2015 [76] USA Very high 4b RO 49 0% 70‡§ 41%§ 97%§ Malignant Combined Regional 7* Median Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Gage, 2015 [77] UK Very high 4b RO 688 0% 75 44% U Unspecified Combined Regional 70.54‡† Mean Referral-to-death Good (30)
Gozalo, 2015 [78] USA Very high 4b RO 261,252 U 85‡§ 65%§ U Mixed SPCU National 19.20*, 83.35‡† Median and mean Length-of-stay Fair (22)
Gu, 2015 [79] China High 4a RO 244 0% 63 49% U Malignant SPCU Local 19*, 23.54 Median and mean Survival Good (29)
Gupte, 2015 [80] USA Very high 4b RO 1801 U 72 49% 93% Malignant Combined National 21.81*, 68.66‡† Median and mean Length-of-stay Good (32)
Hennemann-Krause, 2015 [81] Brazil High 3a PO 12 0% 68 42% U Malignant Community/home Local 195 Mean Referral-to-death Good (28)
Hui, 2015 [82] Multicentre - USA and Brazil Very high & High 4b & 3a PO 357 43% 58 55% U Malignant SPCU Inter-national 6* Median Length-of-stay Good (31)
Kao, 2015 [83] Taiwan Very high 4a RO 462 0% 68 30% U Malignant Combined National 19*, 36.37 Median and mean Referral-to-death Good (31)
Kim, 2015 [84] South Korea Very high 3a RO 198 0% 66 41% U Malignant SPCU Local 18* Median Length-of-stay Good (28)
Kozlov, 2015 [85] USA Very high 4b RO 160 13% U U U Mixed General hospital ward Local 23*, 73.89 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (21)
Lee, 2015 [86] South Korea Very high 3a RO 609 0% U 52% U Malignant SPCU Local 21* Median Survival Fair (24)
Myers, 2015 [87] Canada Very high 4b PO 368 0% 65 56% U Malignant Community/home Local 121*, 171.7 Median and mean Survival Fair (21)
O’Connor, 2015 [88] USA Very high 4b RO 122 0% 55 100% 76% Malignant Combined Local 17* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Pineau, 2015 [89] Canada Very high 4b RO 28 0% U U U Unspecified SPCU Local 120 Mean Length-of-stay Poor (13)
Zakhour, 2015 [90] USA Very high 4b RO 55 0% 70‡§ 100% 79%§ Malignant Combined Local 28* Median Referral-to-death Good (28)
Bauman, 2016 [91] USA Very high 4b RO 46 0% 64*§ 68% 77% Malignant Combined Local 96* Median Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Bennett, 2016 [10] UK Very high 4b RO 4650 0% 75* 49% U Mixed Combined Regional 34* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Brooks, 2016 [92] USA Very high 4b RO 650 0% U 39% 73% Malignant Combined National 21.44* Median Referral-to-death Good (28)
Brown, 2016 [93] USA Very high 4b RO 7209 U 71‡§ 53%§ 81%§ Non-malignant SPCU National 9*, 45 Median and mean Length-of-stay Good (29)
Cheraghlou, 2016 [94] USA Very high 4b PO 241 1% 88 65% 90% Mixed Combined Regional 15* Median Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Diamond, 2016 [95] USA Very high 4b RO 160 U 63 42% 62% Malignant Community/home Local 44.3 Mean Referral-to-death Good (30)
Hamano, 2016 [96] Japan Very high 4b PO 2069 2% 70 42% U Malignant Combined National 28* Median Survival Fair (26)
Jarosek, 2016 [97] USA Very high 4b RO 30,629 0% U 51% 81% Malignant Combined National 18* Median Referral-to-death Good (31)
Jegier, 2016 [98] USA Very high 4b RO 197 26% 66 37% 36% Mixed SPCU Local 4.86* Median Length-of-stay Good (31)
Kierner, 2016 [99] Austria Very high 4b RO 50 0% 62* 62% U Malignant SPCU Local 21* Median Length-of-stay Fair (27)
King, 2016 [100] USA Very high 4b RO 158 U 63*†§ 55%§ U Malignant SPCU Local 30.24* Median Length-of-stay Good (29)
Lowe, 2016 [101] Canada Very high 4b RO 2922 0% 73 47% U Mixed Combined Regional 34* Median Survival Good (29)
Masman, 2016 [102] Netherlands Very high 4a PO 58 47% 75* 55% U Mixed SPCU Local 36* Median Length-of-stay Good (29)
Obermeyer, 2016 [103] USA Very high 4b RO 254,729 0% 78‡§ 50%§ U Malignant Combined National 15* Median Referral-to-death Fair (24)
Odejide, 2016 [104] USA Very high 4b RO 7810 0% U 55% 93% Malignant Combined National 12.055* Median Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Perri, 2016 [105] Canada Very high 4b RO 235 4% 84 54% U Non-malignant SPCU Local 30 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (27)
Porteous, 2016 [106] UK Very high 4b RO 298 56% U 55% U Mixed SPCU Local 9* Median Length-of-stay Good (28)
Rosenwax, 2016 [107] Australia Very high 4b RO 5932 0% 76ठ46% U Mixed Combined Regional 25* Median Referral-to-death Good (28)
Sathornviriyapong, 2016 [108] Thailand High 3a RO 317 28% 63* 49% U Malignant Combined Local 33* Median Survival Good (29)
Schmalz, 2016 [109] Germany Very high 4b PO 269 ≥ 4% 70 42% U Mixed SPCU Local 9.7 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (27)
Schur, 2016 [110] Austria Very high 4b RO 2414 0% 73* 52% U Mixed Combined National 9* Median Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Senderovich, 2016 [111] Canada Very high 4b RO 237 U 79 59% U Mixed SPCU Local 54.05‡† Mean Length-of-stay Good (30)
Sharma, 2016 [112] USA Very high 4b RO 567 0% 70 2% 94% Malignant Combined Local 22.14‡† Mean Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Stevenson, 2016 [113] USA Very high 4b RO 5,519,849 19% 83 59% 89% Mixed Combined National 18.91*, 82.19‡† Median and mean Referral-to-death Good (29)
United States Renal Data System, 2017 [114] USA Very high 4b RO 180,491 0% 69‡§ 54%§ 67%§ Non-malignant Combined National 5* Median Referral-to-death Fair (19)
Adsersen, 2017 [115] Denmark Very high 4a RO 21,597 0% 70 50% U Malignant Combined National 29*, 64.6 Median and mean Referral-to-death Good (28)
Chan, 2017 [116] UK Very high 4b RO 165 8% U U U Mixed SPCU Local 6.6 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (20)
Choi, 2017 [117] South Korea Very high 3a RO 1829 0% 51 63% U Malignant SPCU National 26.2 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (25)
de la Cruz, 2017 [118] USA Very high 4b RO 329 76% 56 55% 63% Malignant SPCU Local 7.02‡† Mean Length-of-stay Fair (26)
Einstein, 2017 [119] USA Very high 4b RO 66 0% 64 28% 92% Malignant Combined Local 93.24*, 144.12‡† Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Forst, 2017 [120] USA Very high 4b RO 7849 0% 72 49% 86% Malignant Combined National 21* Median Referral-to-death Good (28)
Fukui, 2017 [121] USA Very high 4b RO 37,165 15% 82 60% 87% Non-malignant Combined National 6.88*, 17.41‡† Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Harris, 2017 [122] USA Very high 4b RO 1972 0% 81*§ 51%§ 82%§ Mixed Combined National 41.04‡† Mean Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Hoverman, 2017 [123] USA Very high 4b PI 345 0% U U U Malignant Combined National 18.93* Median Referral-to-death Fair (20)
Kaufman, 2017 [124] USA Very high 4b RO 1248 23% 78 54% 70% Mixed Combined National 27*, 86 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Kelly, 2017 [125] USA Very high 4b RO 81 0% 59*§ 35%§ U Non-malignant Combined Local 15* Median Survival Fair (27)
Kuchinad, 2017 [126] USA Very high 4b RO 39 0% 62* 36% 87% Malignant Combined Local 22* Median Referral-to-death Fair (25)
Lin, 2017 [127] Taiwan Very high 4a RO 22,720 0% 66 40% U Malignant Combined National 9.93‡† Mean Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Lustbader, 2017 [128] USA Very high 4b RO 293 0% 86 51% 93% Mixed Combined Regional 22.87*, 47.07‡† Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (22)
Masel, 2017 [129] Austria Very high 4b RO 91 25% 62* 39% U Malignant SPCU Local 16* Median Length-of-stay Fair (25)
Mercadante, 2017 [130] Italy Very high 4b PO 314 96% 66 42% U Malignant SPCU Local 7.01‡† Mean Length-of-stay Good (28)
O’Leary, 2017 [17] Ireland Very high 4b RO 507 0% U 50% U Mixed Combined Regional 70 Mean Referral-to-death Good (29)
Otsuka, 2017 [131] Japan Very high 4b RO 415 0% 72* 40% U Malignant Combined Local 54* Median Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Palmer, 2017 [132] USA Very high 4b RO 3704 0% U 59% 78% Mixed SPCU Local 17.5* Median Length-of-stay Fair (27)
Pellizzari, 2017 [133] Italy Very high 4b RO 2211 0% U 42% U Malignant Community/home Regional 92* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Rivet, 2017 [134] USA Very high 4b RO 82 67% 60* U U Non-malignant General hospital ward Local 1* Median Referral-to-death Good (30)
Sanoff, 2017 [135] USA Very high 4b RO 5056 0% 73* 31% 72% Malignant Combined National 18* Median Referral-to-death Fair (25)
Scaccabarozzi, 2017 [136] Italy Very high 4b RO 1114 0% 76* 44% U Mixed Combined Regional 31* Median Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Schuler, 2017 [137] USA Very high 4b RO 7590 7% U 51% 89% Malignant Combined National 12* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Senel, 2017 [138] Turkey High 3b PO 213 44% 60 41% U Malignant SPCU Local 8.64‡† Mean Length-of-stay Fair (27)
Shah, 2017 [139] Australia Very high 4b RO 74 11% 75 19% U Malignant Unspecified Local 179.4* Median Survival Good (29)
Sharp, 2017 [140] UK Very high 4b RO 108 U 76 32% U Non-malignant Combined Local 124* Median Referral-to-death Fair (23)
Tanuseputro, 2017 [19] Canada Very high 4b RO 92,276 0% U 51% U Mixed Combined Regional 111.1 Mean Referral-to-death Good (29)
Taylor, 2017 [141] USA Very high 4b RO 2642 0% U U 77%§ Malignant Combined Regional 20* Median Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Unroe, 2017 [142] USA Very high 4b RO 32,605 15% 80 61% 75% Mixed Community/home National 20*, 70.4 Median and mean Referral-to-death Good (28)
Vayne-Bossert, 2017 [143] Australia Very high 4b RO 62 0% 88*§ U U Malignant Combined Local 103* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Vinant, 2017 [144] France Very high 4b PO 744 26% 72 48% U Mixed Combined Regional 22* Median Survival Good (30)
Waite, 2017 [145] USA Very high 4b RO 49 0% 78*§ 51%§ U Non-malignant General hospital ward Local 1.54* Median Referral-to-death Fair (24)
Wang, Hsu, 2017 [146] USA Very high 4b RO 71,184 0% 78‡§ 53%§ 87%§ Malignant Combined National 10.9 Mean Referral-to-death Good (29)
Wang, Knight, 2017 [147] USA Very high 4b RO 394 U U U U Malignant Combined Regional 14.5*, 31.6 Median and mean Referral-to-death Good (29)
Wilson, 2017 [148] USA Very high 4b RO 28 0% 75*§ 40%§ U Non-malignant General hospital ward Local 0.42* Median Referral-to-death Good (32)
Yim, 2017 [149] USA Very high 4b RO 5073 9% 82 55% 87% Non-malignant Combined National 15*, 71 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Akdogan, 2018 [150] Turkey High 3b RO 305 57% 80 46% U Mixed SPCU Local 31.1 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (26)
Allsop, 2018 [8] UK Very high 4b RO 42,372 0% U 48% 75% Mixed Combined National 48* Median Referral-to-death Good (30)
Assareh, 2018 [151] Australia Very high 4b RO 24,468 0% U 45%§ U Mixed General hospital ward Regional 6*, 7.6 Median and mean Referral-to-death Good (30)
Cho, 2018 [152] Singapore Very high 4b RO 25 0% 68‡§ 65%§ U Non-malignant Combined Local 8* Median Referral-to-death Good (28)
Choi, 2018 [153] South Korea Very high 3a RO 1829 0% 68 45% U Malignant SPCU National 26.2 Mean Length-of-stay Good (30)
de Oliveira Valentino, 2018 [154] Brazil High 3a RO 839 0% 62‡§ 45%§ U Malignant Combined Local 185.54 Mean Referral-to-death Good (30)
Dinҫer, 2018 [155] Turkey High 3b RO 85 46% 84 55% U Non-malignant SPCU Local 15* Median Length-of-stay Fair (26)
Duff, 2018 [156] USA Very high 4b RO 52 0% 66 2% 75% Malignant Unspecified Local 21.7* Median Referral-to-death Good (30)
Dunn. 2018 [157] USA Very high 4b RO 96 0% 76‡§ 3%§ U Mixed Combined Local 24 Mean Referral-to-death Fair (22)
Gainza-Miranda, 2018 [158] Spain Very high 4a PO 60 30% 74 20% U Non-malignant Community/home Local 252.49* Median Survival Good (28)
Gidwani-Marszowski, 2018 [159] USA Very high 4b RO 1,467,835 0% U 0% 90%§ Mixed Combined National 14.17* Median Referral-to-death Good (30)
Gill, 2018 [160] USA Very high 4b PO 244 0% 87 65% 89% Mixed Combined Regional 12.5*, 40.2 Median and mean Referral-to-death Good (29)
Gurau, 2018 [161] Canada Very high 4b RO 316 0.003% 85 52% U Mixed SPCU Local 25.62‡† Mean Length-of-stay Fair (25)
Hattori, 2018 [162] Japan Very high 4b PO 1924 0% 68* 43% U Malignant SPCU Local 38.5 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (26)
Hausner, 2018 [163] Canada Very high 4b RO 156 0% 66*§ 47%§ U Malignant SPCU Local 8* Median Length-of-stay Fair (25)
Hung, 2018 [164] Taiwan Very high 4a RO 97,614 0% U 38% U Malignant Combined National 28*, 62.12 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Hutchinson, 2018 [165] USA Very high 4b RO 5298 0% U 32% 98% Malignant Combined National 17* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Johnson, 2018 [166] USA Very high 4b RO 101 28% 57*§ 53%§ U Non-malignant Combined National 42* Median Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Kaufman, 2018 [167] USA Very high 4b RO 43,737 U U 56% U Mixed Combined National 26*, 70 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (24)
LeBlanc, 2018 [168] USA Very high 4b RO 9230 0% 79*§ 44%§ 87%§ Malignant Combined National 9* Median Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Ledoux, 2018 [169] France Very high 4b RO 1 0% 69‡§ 38%§ U Malignant General hospital ward Local 1*, 1 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Lo, 2018 [170] Canada Very high 4b RO 780 4% 80 52% U Mixed SPCU Local 32.41‡† Mean Length-of-stay Fair (27)
McDermott, 2018 [171] USA Very high 4b RO 8351 0.6% 77‡§ 49%§ 86%§ Malignant Combined National 14* Median Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Mendieta, 2018 [172] USA Very high 4b RO 54,105 0% 83 49% 71% Mixed Combined National 7.05‡† Mean Referral-to-death Fair (23)
Merchant, 2018 [173] Canada Very high 4b RO 25,446 0% 71 40% U Malignant Combined Regional 76§ Median Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Mulville, 2018 [174] USA Very high 4b RO 161 0% 74 46% U Malignant Combined Local 10*, 38 Median and mean Referral-to-death Poor (17)
Nazim, 2018 [175] Canada Very high 4b RO 28 0% 80‡§ 39%§ U Non-malignant General hospital ward Local 6* Median Referral-to-death Fair (26)
O'Hare, 2018 [176] USA Very high 4b RO 133,962 4% 70ठ47%d 65%d Non-malignant Combined National 6*, 23.48 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (24)
Rozman, 2018 [177] Brazil High 3a RO 2985 0% 64 45% U Malignant Combined Local 34*, 72.3 Median and mean Referral-to-death Fair (26)
Shih, 2018 [178] Taiwan Very high 4a RO 3931 0% 72*§ 35%§ U Mixed Combined Local 12.69* Median Referral-to-death Fair(26)
Shinall Jr, 2018 [179] USA Very high 4b RO 3321 50% 68 48% 79% Mixed SPCU Local 3* Median Length-of-stay Fair (27)
Stephens, 2018 [180] USA Very high 4b RO 299 0% 56*§ 51%§ U Mixed General hospital ward Local 3* Median Referral-to-death Good (28)
Vogl, 2018 [181] Germany Very high 4b RO 784 42% 71 55% U Mixed SPCU Local 9.8 Mean Length-of-stay Fair (27)
Wadhwa, 2018 [182] Canada Very high 4b RO 337 0% 65 48% U Malignant Community/home Local 103.41*, 206.83 Median and mean Referral-to-death Good (28)
Yennurajalingam, 2018 [183] USA Very high 4b RO 340 0% 62* 47% 71% Malignant Community/home Local 152.08* Median Referral-to-death Fair (27)
Yoo, 2018 [184] South Korea Very high 3a RO 277 0% 62‡§ 39%§ U Malignant Combined Local 45.2 Mean Referral-to-death Good (31)
Ziegler, 2018 [185] UK Very high 4b RO 1598 0% U 49% U Malignant Combined Local 42* Median Referral-to-death Good (29)
Chai (personal commu-nication, Coyte PC, University of Toronto) Canada Very high 4b RO 81 0% U U U Malignant Community/home Local 65*, 111.56 Median and mean Referral-to-death U
  1. UNDP HDI United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index, WHPCA Worldwide Hospice Palliative Care Alliance, RO retrospective observational, U unspecified (data neither available nor possible to calculate), SPCU specialist palliative care unit, USA United States of America, UK United Kingdom, PI prospective interventional, PO prospective observational
  2. *Median
  3. Weighted due to multiple subgroups with individual summaries of duration of palliative care
  4. Mean
  5. §Value for larger cohort of study participants including those not referred to palliative care