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Table 2 Duration of palliative care in days prior to death, by country and other characteristics

From: Duration of palliative care before death in international routine practice: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Weighted median duration of palliative care in days (IQR) p value
All studies 18.91 (0.09)  
Country Service type   
Australia 6.00 (8.81)
  Specialist palliative care 14.81 (0.00)
Community/home -
General hospital ward 6.00 (0.00)
Combined 25.00 (0.00)
Austria 9.00 (0.00)
  Specialist palliative care 16.00 (5.00)
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined 9.00 (0.00)
Belgium 17.95 (*)
  Specialist palliative care -
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined 17.95 (0.00)
Brazil 34.00 (0)
  Specialist palliative care -
Community/home 115.02 (0.00)
General hospital ward -
Combined 34.00 (0.00)
Canada 68.88 (0.00)
  Specialist palliative care 25.60 (3.73)
Community/home 47.92 (0.00)
General hospital ward 6.00 (0.00)
Combined 68.88 (0.00)
China 19.00 (*)
  Specialist palliative care 19.00 (0.00)
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined -
Denmark 29.00 (*)
  Specialist palliative care -
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined 29.99 (0.00)
Egypt 66.00 (*)
  Specialist palliative care 66.00 (0.00)
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined -
Finland 25.37 (*)
  Specialist palliative care 25.37 (0.00)
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined -
France 22.00 (0.00)
  Specialist palliative care -
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined 22.00 (0.00)
Germany 13.16 (0)
  Specialist palliative care 13.16 (0.00)
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined -
Ireland 46.27 (0.00)
  Specialist palliative care -
Community/home -
General hospital ward 10.30 (0.00)
Combined 46.27 (0.00)
Italy 21.00 (10.00)
  Specialist palliative care 11.62 (6.26)
Community/home 92.00 (0.00)
General hospital ward -
Combined 21.00 (0.00)
Japan 28.95 (0.95)
  Specialist palliative care 28.95 (0.00)
Community/home 35.00 (0.00)
General hospital ward -
Combined 28.00 (0.00)
Netherlands 36.00 (37)
  Specialist palliative care 36.00 (0.00)
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined -
Saudi Arabia 16.63 (*)
  Specialist palliative care -
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined 16.63 (0.00)
Singapore 8.00 (19)
  Specialist palliative care -
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined 8.00 (0.00)
South Korea 22.18 (0.00)
  Specialist palliative care 22.18 (0.00)
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined 32.63 (0.00)
Spain 43.52 (0.00)
  Specialist palliative care -
Community/home 43.52 (0.00)
General hospital ward -
Combined -
Taiwan 28.00 (0.00)
  Specialist palliative care 13.50 (0.00)
Community/home -
General hospital ward 33.71 (0.00)
Combined 28.00 (0.00)
Thailand 33.00 (*)
  Specialist palliative care -
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined 33.00 (0.00)
Turkey 24.88 (12.35)
  Specialist palliative care 24.88 (12.35)
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined -
UK 48.00 (0.00)
  Specialist palliative care 9.00 (2.40)
Community/home 41.41 (294.59)
General hospital ward -
Combined 48.00 (0.00)
Multicentre – USA & Brazil 6.00 (5)
  Specialist palliative care 6.00 (0.00)  
Community/home -
General hospital ward -
Combined -
USA 18.91 (0.09)
  Specialist palliative care 19.20 (17.72)
Community/home 20.00 (0.00)
General hospital ward 3.00 (12.01)
Combined 18.91 (0.09)
USA vs non-USA studies USA 18.91 (0.09) p < 0.001
All non-USA studies 29.00 (40.88)
UNDP Human Development Index (2015) Very high 18.91 (0.09)  
High 34.00 (0)
Medium 66.00 (*)
No data 6.00 (5)
Very high 18.91 (0.09) p < 0.001
< Very high 34.00 (1.00)
WHPCA categorisation of palliative care development (2011) 4b 18.91 (0.09)  
4a 28.00 (0)
3b 24.88 (12.35)
3a 22.18 (11.82)
No data 6.00 (5)
4b 18.91 (0.09) p < 0.001
< 4b 28.00 (0)
Type of disease Malignant 15.00 (7.18) p < 0.001
Non-malignant 6.00 (1.00)
Mixed 18.91 (0.09)  
Unspecified 14.81 (0)
Type of palliative care service Specialist palliative care unit 19.20 (17.72) p < 0.001
Community/home 20.00 (0)
General hospital ward 6.00 (0)
Combined 18.91 (0.09)  
Unspecified 21.70 (167.40)
  1. Median data weighted against the size of the study population of included studies
  2. IQR interquartile range, UK United Kingdom, USA United States of America
  3. *Data neither available nor possible to calculate
  4. IQR from single study sample