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Table 5 Association of genetically predicted ischemic heart disease (IHD) (P value< 5 × 10−8 and r2 < 0.001) based on the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D 1000 Genomes-based GWAS (1000 Genomes), genetically predicted ischemic stroke based on the MEGASTROKE, and genetically predicted type 2 diabetes (T2DM) based on the DIAbetes Meta-ANalysis of Trans-Ethnic association studies (DIAMANTE) with cortisol based on the Crawford et al. study [19] using Mendelian randomization (MR) with different methods

From: The role of cortisol in ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a bi-directional Mendelian randomization study

Exposure sources Outcome sources SNPs F-statistic Method Beta 95% CI   P value IVW MR-Egger
Cochran’s Q-statistic P value Intercept P value I2
IHD Cortisol 39 61.3 IVW − 0.03 − 0.08 0.03 0.38 37.37 0.50   
(1000 Genomes) (Crawford 2019)    WM − 0.08 − 0.17 0.01 0.08     
   MR-Egger − 0.01 − 0.16 0.13 0.88    0.83 96.1%
   MR-PRESSO − 0.03 − 0.09 0.03 0.38     
Ischemic stroke Cortisol 9 40.8 IVW − 0.06 − 0.19 0.07 0.35 7.10 0.53   
(MEGASTROKE) (Crawford 2019)    WM − 0.004 − 0.17 0.17 0.97     
   MR-Egger − 0.45 − 1.42 0.53 0.37    0.44 0%
   MR-PRESSO − 0.06 − 0.20 0.08 0.35     
T2DM Cortisol 166 80.8 IVW 0.01 − 0.03 0.04 0.60 163.50 0.52   
(DIAMANTE) (Crawford 2019)    WM 0.001 − 0.07 0.07 0.99     
   MR-Egger − 0.002 − 0.08 0.07 0.96    0.75 96.7%
   MR-PRESSO 0.01 − 0.03 0.04 0.60     
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, IVW inverse variance weighting, MR Mendelian randomization, SNP single nucleotide polymorphism, WM weighted median