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Table 1 Baseline sociodemographic clinical and therapeutic characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019

From: Mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted for COVID-19 in association with glucose-lowering drugs: a nationwide cohort study

Variables n = 2666
Age (years) 74.9 ± 8.4
Male gender 1647 (61.9%)
Obesity 766 (31.6%)
Admission blood glucose (mg/dL) 153 ± 45.7
Admission serum creatinine (mg/dL) 1.03 ± 0.23
Admission aspartate aminotransferase (U/L) 31 ± 8
Admission alanine aminotransferase (U/L) 26 ± 6
Metformin 1618 (60.8%)
DPP-4i 791 (30.2%)
GLP1-1RA 127 (4.8%)
SGLT-2i 296 (11.3%)
Insulin 723 (27.6%)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor 724 (27.4%)
Angiotensin II receptor blocker 789 (29.9%)
Statin 1534 (58.0%)
Antiplatelet 643 (24.8%)
Anticoagulant (16.3%)
History of smoking 955 (35.8%)
Hypertension 2026 (76.2%)
Dyslipidemia 1730 (65.0%)
Chronic kidney disease 352 (13.2%)
Atrial fibrillation 444 (16.7%)
Coronary artery disease 610 (22.9%)
Heart failure 445 (16.7%)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 346 (13.0%)
Liver disease 172 (6.5%)
Cancer 353 (13.3%)
Stroke 322 (12.1%)
Dementia 384 (14.4%)
Depression 308 (11.6%)
Moderate-severe functional dependence 636 (24.2%)
Moderate-severe comorbidity 2338 (90.7%)
Disease severity
 Moderate 1891 (70.9%)
 Severe 714 (26.8%)
 Critical 61 (2.3%)
Hydroxychloroquine 2185 (82.0%)
Chloroquine 72 (2.7%)
Lopinavir/ritonavir 1195 (44.8%)
Azithromycin 1595 (59.8%)
Remdesivir 36 (1.4%)
Interferon-β 276 (10.4%)
Corticosteroids 1186 (44.5%)
Tocilizumab 215 (8.1%)
  1. Values are shown as mean ± standard deviations, absolute values, and percentages
  2. The degree of functional dependence was assessed using the Barthel Index. The presence of comorbidities was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index
  3. DPP-4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, GLP-1RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, mg/dL milligram/deciliter, SGLT-2i sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, U/L unit/liter