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Table 2 Association between metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, insulin, and metformin plus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and study outcomes after propensity score matching

From: Mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted for COVID-19 in association with glucose-lowering drugs: a nationwide cohort study

Outcomes Treatment groups Conditional logit logistic regression Mixed effect logistic regression
OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
  Metformin (n = 249) Other GLD (n = 249) p value  
In-hospital deaths 79 (31.7%) 79 (31.7%) 1.000 1.15 (0.78–1.71) 0.482 1.16 (0.78–1.72) 0.482
ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or in-hospital death 91 (36.5%) 88 (35.4%) 0.852 1.05 (0.73–1.51) 0.780 1.05 (0.73–1.52) 0.779
In-hospital complications 146 (58.6%) 139 (55.8%) 0.587 1.18 (0.81–1.72) 0.392 1.17 (0.81–1.70) 0.398
Long-time hospital stay 59 (23.7%) 45 (18.1%) 0.152 1.49 (0.95–2.31) 0.079 1.49 (0.96–2.33) 0.075
  DPP-4i (n = 105) Other GLD (n = 105) p value  
In-hospital deaths 41 (39.0%) 44 (41.9%) 0.779 1.05 (0.66–2.13) 0.521 1.05 (0.67–2.11) 0.562
ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or in-hospital death 45 (42.9%) 42 (40.0%) 0.780 1.12 (0.65–1.92) 0.680 1.12 (0.65–1.95) 0.675
In-hospital complications 66 (62.9%) 70 (66.7%) 0.665 0.94 (0.67–2.12) 0.480 0.94 (0.67–2.13) 0.481
Long-time hospital stay 23 (21.9%) 24 (22.9%) 1.000 0.83 (0.38–1.46) 0.400 0.84 (0.39–1.46) 0.406
  Insulin (n = 129) Other GLD (n = 129) p value  
In-hospital deaths 51 (39.5%) 46 (35.7%) 0.607 1.15 (0.65–1.97) 0.590 1.15 (0.65–1.97) 0.598
ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or in-hospital death 57 (44.2%) 54 (41.9%) 0.802 1.10 (0.67–1.80) 0.710 1.10 (0.67–1.81) 0.706
In-hospital complications 49 (38.9%) 46 (35.7%) 0.796 1.00 (0.58–1.67) 0.930 1.00 (0.57–1.67) 0.912
Long-time hospital stay 22 (17.1%) 34 (26.4%) 0.097 0.63 (0.37–1.20) 0.158 0.63 (0.37–1.21) 0.159
  Metformin + DPP-4i (n = 127) Other GLD (n = 127) p value  
In-hospital deaths 29 (22.8%) 37 (29.1%) 0.317 0.73 (0.40–1.28) 0.270 0.72 (0.39–1.27) 0.251
ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or in-hospital death 40 (31.5%) 45 (35.4%) 0.592 0.84 (0.50–1.41) 0.510 0.84 (0.49–1.41) 0.503
In-hospital complications 67 (52.8%) 70 (55.1%) 0.801 0.87 (0.51–1.46) 0.596 0.86 (0.50–1.47) 0.592
Long-time hospital stay 29 (22.8%) 26 (20.5%) 0.761 1.17 (0.62–2.23) 0.627 1.17 (0.62–2.19) 0.632
  1. Data are shown as absolute values and percentages. A significant imbalance in the group was considered if a standardized mean difference between baseline variables of greater than 10% was found. Values were considered to be statistically significant when p < 0.05
  2. DPP-4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, GLD glucose-lowering drugs, ICU intensive care unit, OR odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval