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Table 4 Association between metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, insulin, and metformin plus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and study outcomes before propensity score matching

From: Mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted for COVID-19 in association with glucose-lowering drugs: a nationwide cohort study

Outcomes Treatment groups Univariate model Multivariate model
OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
  Metformin (n = 825) Other GLD (n = 663) p value  
In-hospital deaths 244 (29.6%) 244 (36.8%) 0.005 0.73 (0.58–0.90) 0.004 1.10 (0.76–1.60) 0.616
ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or in-hospital death 295 (35.8%) 278 (41.9%) 0.023 0.78 (0.63–0.96) 0.020 1.03 (0.73–1.44) 0.883
In-hospital complications 435 (52.7%) 394 (59.4%) 0.013 0.76 (0.62–0.94) 0.011 1.08 (0.77–1.50) 0.666
Long-time hospital stay 195 (23.6%) 149 (22.5%) 0.584 1.08 (0.85–1.38) 0.542 1.41 (0.96–2.09) 0.080
  DPP-4i (n = 180) Other GLD (n = 1409) p value  
In-hospital deaths 75 (41.7%) 440 (31.2%) 0.007 1.56 (1.13–2.14) 0.006 1.39 (0.64–1.67) 0.876
ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or in-hospital death 80 (44.4%) 531 (37.7%) 0.119 1.30 (0.95–1.78) 0.102 0.97 (0.61–1.52) 0.890
In-hospital complications 113 (62.8%) 775 (55.0%) 0.104 1.33 (0.96–1.84) 0.089 0.95 (0.59–1.54) 0.842
Long-time hospital stay 35 (19.4%) 321 (22.8%) 0.333 0.81 (0.54–1.18) 0.288 0.90 (0.52–1.52) 0.703
Insulin (n = 292) Other GLD (n = 1458) p value  
In-hospital deaths 111 (38.0%) 431 (29.6%) 0.007 1.45 (1.11–1.88) 0.006 1.11 (0.70–1.75) 0.652
ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or in-hospital death 125 (42.8%) 528 (36.2%) 0.039 1.32 (1.02–1.71) 0.033 1.09 (0.71–1.66) 0.699
In-hospital complications 170 (58.2%) 786 (53.9%) 0.143 1.23 (0.95–1.60) 0.126 0.96 (0.62–1.47) 0.834
Long-time hospital stay 74 (25.3%) 327 (22.4%) 0.357 1.16 (0.86–1.55) 0.318 0.699 (0.43–1.12) 0.145
Metformin + DPP-4i (n = 288) Other GLD (n = 384) p value  
In-hospital deaths 80 (27.8%) 136 (35.4%) 0.044 0.70 (0.50–0.98) 0.036 0.71 (0.40–1.28) 0.257
ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or in-hospital death 104 (36.1%) 159 (41.4%) 0.159 0.79 (0.57–1.08) 0.137 0.82 (0.50–1.36) 0.452
In-hospital complications 160 (55.6%) 226 (58.9%) 0.304 0.84 (0.61–1.15) 0.268 1.01 (0.63–1.62) 0.975
Long-time hospital stay 71 (24.7%) 95 (24.7%) 1.000 1.00 (0.71–1.44) 0.963 1.42 (0.82–2.47) 0.217
  1. Data are shown as absolute values and percentages. Values were considered to be statistically significant when p < 0.05
  2. DPP-4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, GLD glucose-lowering drugs, ICU intensive care unit, OR odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval