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Table 2 Characteristics of included RCTs

From: Comparing the effects of HIV self-testing to standard HIV testing for key populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Country Total randomised Study population Intervention(s)/support tools Standard of care HIVST distribution method
Chanda et al. [22] Zambia 965 FSW • Peer educator provided risk reduction counselling; condom distribution; HIV testing information
• Group HIVST demonstration
• Peer educator delivered HIVST kit (arm 1)
• Peer educator delivered coupons for HIVST collection at facilities (arm 2)
• Peer educator provided risk reduction counselling; condom distribution; HIV testing information • Facility-based distribution (arm 1)
• Secondary distribution—peers (arm 2)
Jamil et al. [23] Australia 362 MSM • 4 HIVST kits at enrolment, option to request additional kits (max 12 per year)
• 24/7 telephone hotline
• Standard HIV testing services • Facility-based distribution
• Distribution by mail (optional)
Katz et al. [24] USA 230 MSM (n=226), trans people (n=4; 1 trans woman, 3 gender-queer/neutral) • 1 HIVST kit at enrolment, option to request additional kits (max 1 per month)
• In-person demonstration; information about HIV testing and reminders; 24/7 telephone hotline
• HIV testing advice
• Offer of testing reminders (email, phone or letter) at desired frequency
• Facility-based distribution
• Distribution by mail (optional)
Kelvin et al. [25] Kenya 2196 FSW • Choice of supervised self-administered HIVST at facility (overseen by health worker) or free HIVST kit for home use • Provider administered testing
• Testing reminder via SMS
• HIVST at facilities
MacGowan et al. [20] USA 2665 MSM • 4 HIVST kits at enrolment (mail), option to request additional kits 3 monthly
• HIV testing information; 24/7 telephone hotline
• Standard HIV testing services • Online/mail distribution
Merchant et al. [26] USA 425 MSM (18–24 years) • Internet gift card for online order of HIVST kit • HIV testing advice
• Web link to testing service locator
• Online/mail distribution
Ortblad et al. [27, 28] Uganda 960 FSW • Peer educator provided risk reduction counselling; condom distribution; HIV testing information
• Group HIVST demonstration
• Peer educator delivered HIVST kit (arm 1)
• Peer educator delivered coupons for HIVST collection at facilities (arm 2)
• Peer educator provided risk reduction counselling; condom distribution; HIV testing information • Facility-based distribution (arm 1)
• Secondary distribution—peers (arm 2)
Tang et al. [29] China 1381 MSM (n=1313), trans women (n=68) • Access to HIVST kits promoted via social media along with a promotional campaign on HIV testing • Routine health promotion efforts • Online/mail distribution
Wang et al. [30] Hong Kong SAR 430 MSM • 1 HIVST kit at enrolment (mail)
• 3 min online video promoting HIV testing; 4 min online video promoting HIVST; 15 min motivational interview conducted over the phone by trained staff to promote HIVST
• Real-time instructions and pre/post-test counselling provided online
• Accompaniment to clinic appointment for confirmatory testing
• 3 min online video promoting HIV testing • Online/mail distribution
Wray et al. [31] USA 65 MSM • HIVST kits mailed at 3 monthly intervals (arm 1)
• HIVST kits fitted with Bluetooth device mailed at 3 monthly intervals (arm 2)
• Follow-up by counsellor when kit opened; risk reduction counselling and referral to prevention services (arm 2)
• 3-monthly letters with HIV testing information • Online/mail distribution