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Fig. 1 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Dietary fruit and vegetable intake, gut microbiota, and type 2 diabetes: results from two large human cohort studies

Fig. 1

The prospective association of fruit intake with the overall human gut microbiota in the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study. ac Results of different α-diversity matrix. a Observed species. b Chao 1’s diversity parameter. c Shannon’s diversity parameter. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the difference in α-diversity comparing extreme quartiles (quartile 4 versus quartile 1) of fruit intake, adjusted for Bristol stool score, sequencing run, sequencing depth, age, sex, BMI, physical activity, education, income, smoking status, alcohol status, drug use (medications for hypertension, hyperlipidemia and T2D), T2D status, total energy intake, dietary intakes of vegetable, red and processed meat, fish and dairy products. d β-diversity: principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) plot based on Bray-Cutis distance at operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level. Permutational ANOVA (PERMANOVA) (999 permutations) was used to identify the variation of β-diversity in human gut microbiota structure comparing extreme quartiles of fruit intake, adjusted for the same covariates. e MaAsLin was used to identify the gut microbial biomarkers for fruit intake comparing extreme quartiles of fruit intake, adjusted for the same covariates. The Benjamini-Hochberg method was used to adjust p values for multiple testing. Value with asterisk is significantly different (*p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001)

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