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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants in the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study

From: Dietary fruit and vegetable intake, gut microbiota, and type 2 diabetes: results from two large human cohort studies

Characteristics Total Fruit intake Vegetable intake
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p-trend Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p-trend
n 1879 471 471 467 470   470 470 469 470  
Age, years 58.6 (6.1) 59.1 (6.5) 58.8 (6.4) 58.5 (6.0) 58.0 (5.5) 0.005 58.8 (6.9) 59.0 (6.2) 58.4 (5.7) 58.3 (5.4) 0.079
Sex, n (% of women) 1264 (67.3) 278 (59.0) 297 (63.1) 335 (71.7) 354 (75.3) < 0.001 291 (61.9) 305 (64.9) 332 (70.8) 336 (71.5) < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 23.2 (3.0) 23.3 (3.1) 23.4 (3.2) 23.1 (2.9) 23.3 (2.8) 0.683 23.3 (3.1) 23.4 (3.0) 23.0 (2.7) 23.3 (3.1) 0.420
Total energy intake, kcal/day 1742 (488) 1573 (469) 1687 (455) 1765 (432) 1944 (517) < 0.001 1505 (433) 1677 (430) 1798 (455) 1989 (500) < 0.001
Physical activity, MET hours/day 40.6 (14.1) 38.5 (13.4) 39.6 (13.6) 41.8 (14.3) 42.6 (14.6) < 0.001 38.8 (12.7) 39.5 (13.6) 41.6 (14.3) 42.5 (15.2) < 0.001
Vegetable intake, g/day 383 (182) 317 (175) 352 (149) 401 (157) 464 (208) < 0.001 192 (45) 303 (29) 414 (37) 624 (162) < 0.001
Fruit intake, g/day 146 (109) 42 (19) 95 (16) 154 (19) 292 (107) < 0.001 103 (86) 133 (92) 154 (97) 194 (133) < 0.001
Total fruit and vegetable intake, g/day 529 (239) 358 (178) 448 (152) 556 (159) 756 (248) < 0.001 295 (100) 436 (100) 568 (105) 819 (222) < 0.001
Red and processed meat intake, g/day 104 (61) 98 (59) 101 (56) 105 (57) 114 (70) < 0.001 89 (54) 99 (54) 112 (64) 117 (67) < 0.001
Fish intake, g/day 50 (51) 44 (64) 43 (31) 54 (60) 61 (42) < 0.001 37 (56) 45 (34) 53 (44) 67 (62) < 0.001
Dairy products intake, g/day 115 (114) 88 (104) 107 (108) 124 (122) 142 (116) < 0.001 94 (105) 113 (107) 125 (115) 128 (127) < 0.001
Current alcohol drinker, n (%) 137 (7.3) 33 (7.0) 51 (10.8) 28 (6.0) 25 (5.3) 0.065 39 (8.3) 40 (8.5) 32 (6.8) 26 (5.5) 0.063
Current smoker, n (%) 292 (15.5) 100 (21.2) 87 (18.5) 57 (12.2) 48 (10.2) < 0.001 93 (19.8) 79 (16.8) 59 (12.6) 61 (13.0) 0.001
Income level, n (%) < 0.001 0.472
 ≤ 500 ¥/months 28 (1.5) 11 (2.3) 4 (0.8) 8 (1.7) 5 (1.1)   6 (1.3) 8 (1.7) 9 (1.9) 5 (1.1)  
 501–1500 ¥/months 403 (21.4) 116 (24.6) 110 (23.4) 93 (19.9) 84 (17.9)   85 (18.1) 98 (20.9) 105 (22.4) 115 (24.4)  
 1501–3000 ¥/months 1197 (63.7) 301 (63.9) 299 (63.5) 295 (63.2) 302 (64.2)   343 (73.0) 302 (64.2) 279 (59.5) 273 (58.1)  
 > 3000 ¥/months 251 (13.4) 43 (9.1) 58 (12.3) 71 (15.2) 79 (16.8)   36 (7.6) 62 (13.2) 76 (16.2) 77 (16.4)  
Education, n (%) 0.492 0.130
 Middle school or lower 510 (27.1) 139 (29.5) 120 (25.5) 128 (27.4) 123 (26.2)   132 (28.1) 137 (29.1) 111 (23.7) 130 (27.7)  
 High school or professional college 864 (46.0) 205 (43.5) 201 (42.7) 218 (46.7) 240 (51.1)   203 (43.2) 217 (46.2) 226 (48.2) 218 (46.3)  
 University 505 (26.9) 127 (27.0) 150 (31.8) 121 (25.9) 107 (22.7)   135 (28.7) 116 (24.7) 132 (28.1) 122 (26.0)  
 Glucose, mmol/L 5.48 (1.32) 5.51 (1.22) 5.53 (1.65) 5.54 (1.38) 5.34 7(0.87) 0.089 5.49 (1.24) 5.39 (1.05) 5.57 (1.64) 5.47 (1.27) 0.657
 Insulin, μU/mL 7.30 (4.00) 7.17 (4.00) 7.42 (4.00) 7.41 (4.43) 7.19 (3.50) 0.926 7.54 (4.36) 7.41 (4.05) 7.12 (3.64) 7.09 (3.87) 0.072
 HbAlc, % 7.24 (4.22) 7.13 (4.01) 7.26 (4.25) 7.14 (4.03) 7.42 (4.57) 0.396 7.13 (3.95) 7.28 (4.64) 7.37 (4.51) 7.16 (3.70) 0.822
 HOMA-IR 1.83 (1.23) 1.81 (1.25) 1.86 (1.16) 1.91 (1.50) 1.74 (0.91) 0.626 1.89 (1.33) 1.81 (1.19) 1.81 (1.10) 1.81 (1.29) 0.356
 HOMA-β, % 85.2 (54.2) 83.8 (54.5) 87.6 (58.2) 83.8 (56.1) 85.7 (47.3) 0.873 88.5 (61.5) 88.7 (52.8) 81.3 (50.8) 81.5 (49.9) 0.023
Medication use, n (%) 0.057 0.930
 Hypertension 100 (5.3) 22 (4.7) 26 (5.5) 26 (5.6) 26 (5.5)   15 (3.2) 23 (4.9) 26 (5.5) 36 (7.7)  
 Hyperlipidemia 111 (5.9) 31 (6.6) 39 (8.3) 18 (3.9) 23 (4.9)   35 (7.4) 25 (5.3) 31 (6.6) 20 (4.3)  
 T2D 58 (3.1) 21 (4.5) 19 (4.0) 6 (1.3) 12 (2.6)   19 (4.0) 12 (2.6) 17 (3.6) 10 (2.1)  
  1. Data are expressed as mean (SD) for continuous variables and n (%) for categorical variables; Q1 indicates the quartile with the lowest intake; p-trend represents the comparison among quartiles using linear regression
  2. Q1 quartile 1, Q2 quartile 2, Q3 quartile 3, Q4 quartile 4, HbAlc glycated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-β homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function, T2D type 2 diabetes