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Table 1 Baseline distribution of sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics by presence and severity of sleep disturbances

From: Sleep disturbances and the speed of multimorbidity development in old age: results from a longitudinal population-based study

  No disturbances, n = 955 Mild disturbances¥, n = 175 Moderate–severe disturbances§, n = 59 p value*
Age, mean (SD) 67.6 (7.8) 67.9 (8.3) 65.9 (8.1) 0.504
Sex, % (n)     0.032
 Female 56.3 (538) 64.0 (112) 69.5 (41)  
 Male 43.7 (417) 36.0 (63) 30.5 (18)  
Education, % (n)     0.332
 Elementary 10.4 (99) 8.0 (14) 17.0 (10)  
 High school 46.1 (439) 44.6 (78) 39.0 (23)  
 University 43.5 (414) 47.4 (83) 44.0 (26)  
Physical activity, % (n)     0.001
 Inadequate 18.2 (174) 16.0 (28) 33.9 (20)  
 Health-enhancing 50.3 (480) 57.7 (101) 54.2 (32)  
 Fitness-enhancing 31.5 (301) 26.3 (46) 11.9 (7)  
Smoking, % (n)     0.214
 Never 43.3 (410) 43.7 (76) 42.4 (25)  
 Former 37.7 (358) 43.1 (75) 45.8 (27)  
 Current 19.0 (180) 13.2 (23) 11.8 (7)  
Alcohol, % (n)     0.097
 Never 20.6 (195) 20.6 (36) 33.8 (20)  
 Light–moderate 61.8 (589) 57.7 (101) 49.2 (29)  
 Heavy 17.6 (169) 21.6 (38) 17.0 (10)  
BMI, % (n)     0.380
 Underweight 1.0 (9) 0.0 (0) 1.7 (1)  
 Normal weight 45.3 (426) 47.7 (83) 39.0 (23)  
 Overweight 42.3 (398) 37.3 (65) 42.3 (25)  
 Obesity 11.4 (107) 15.0 (26) 17.0 (10)  
Psychotropic drugsa, % (n) 7.1 (68) 22.3 (39) 25.4 (15) < 0.001
Depressionb, % (n) 1.1 (10) 5.8 (10) 14.3 (8) < 0.001
Painc, % (n) 22.8 (217) 34.5 (60) 47.5 (28) < 0.001
  1. *Obtained through the chi-squared test or the Kruskal–Wallis test, as appropriate
  2. aPsychotropic drugs include anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antipsychotics, and antidepressants
  3. bDepression defined according to the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); scores > 9 indicate depression
  4. cSelf-reported presence of any pain in the last month
  5. ¥Categories 1–2 “Slight difficulty dropping off to sleep or slightly reduced, light or fitful sleep” of the CPRS question on sleeping problems
  6. §Categories 3–4 “Sleep reduced or broken by at least two hours” and 5–6 “Less than two or three hours of sleep” of the CPRS question on sleeping problems