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Table 3 Association between sleep disturbances at baseline and rate of chronic diseases accumulation throughout the 9-year follow-up

From: Sleep disturbances and the speed of multimorbidity development in old age: results from a longitudinal population-based study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
ß (SE) p value ß (SE) p value ß (SE) p value
No disturbances Ref   Ref   Ref  
Mild disturbances¥ 0.018 (0.032) 0.574 0.019 (0.032) 0.539 0.022 (0.032) 0.496
Moderate–severe disturbances§ 0.145 (0.053) 0.006 0.147 (0.053) 0.005 0.142 (0.054) 0.008
  1. ß coefficients for the interaction term between time and the exposure, obtained through linear mixed models.
  2. Model 1: adjusted by sex, age, and education level
  3. Model 2: adjusted additionally by physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI
  4. Model 3: adjusted additionally by the presence of depression (MADRS score > 9), presence of any pain, psychotropic medication, and presence of one chronic disease at baseline
  5. ¥Categories 1–2 “Slight difficulty dropping off to sleep or slightly reduced, light or fitful sleep” of the CPRS question on sleeping problems
  6. §Categories 3–4 “Sleep reduced or broken by at least two hours” and 5–6 “Less than two or three hours of sleep” of the CPRS question on sleeping problems