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Table 4 Association between sleep disturbances at baseline and rate of cardiovascular (CV), neuropsychiatric (NP), and musculoskeletal (MSK) chronic disease accumulation throughout the 9-year follow-up

From: Sleep disturbances and the speed of multimorbidity development in old age: results from a longitudinal population-based study

  CV diseases NP diseases MSK diseases
ß (SE) p value ß (SE) p value ß (SE) p value
No disturbances Ref   Ref   Ref  
Mild disturbances¥ − 0.012 (0.011) 0.267 0.008 (0.009) 0.419 − 0.003 (0.010) 0.735
Moderate–severe disturbances§ 0.001 (0.018) 0.995 0.041 (0.016) 0.008 0.038 (0.017) 0.025
  1. ß coefficients for the interaction term between time and the exposure, obtained through linear mixed models. Models adjusted by sex, age, education level, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, presence of depression (MADRS score > 9) except for the model with NP diseases as the outcome, presence of pain, psychotropic medication, and presence of one chronic disease at baseline. Cardiovascular diseases: ischemic heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular disease, cardiac valve diseases, bradycardias or conduction diseases, peripheral vascular disease, and other cardiovascular diseases. Neuropsychiatric diseases: depression and mood diseases, dementia, neurotic or stress-related and somatoform diseases, migraine and facial pain syndromes, peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson or parkinsonism, epilepsy, schizophrenia and delusional diseases, multiple sclerosis, other psychiatric or behavioral diseases, and other neurological diseases. Musculoskeletal diseases: dorsopathies, inflammatory arthropathies, osteoarthritis and other degenerative joint diseases, osteoporosis, and other musculoskeletal and joint diseases
  2. ¥Categories 1–2 “Slight difficulty dropping off to sleep or slightly reduced, light or fitful sleep” of the CPRS question on sleeping problems
  3. §Categories 3–4 “Sleep reduced or broken by at least two hours” and 5–6 “Less than two or three hours of sleep” of the CPRS question on sleeping problems