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Table 1 The clustering status of TB cases by risk factor in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2010–2014

From: The impact of HIV infection on tuberculosis transmission in a country with low tuberculosis incidence: a national retrospective study using molecular epidemiology

  Total cases Clustered cases (%) Subsequent cases (% of clustered cases) First cases (% of clustered cases)
HIV status
 Negative 18,105 10,299 (56.9) 8160 (79.2) 2139 (20.8)
 Positive 759 410 (54.0) 311 (75.9) 99 (24.1)
Year of TB notification
 2010 3174 1795 (56.6) 874 (48.7) 921 (51.3)
 2011 4296 2443 (56.9) 1786 (73.1) 657 (26.9)
 2012 4327 2525 (58.4) 2150 (85.1) 375 (14.9)
 2013 3696 2130 (57.6) 1940 (91.1) 190 (8.9)
 2014 3371 1816 (53.9) 1721 (94.8) 95 (5.2)
Sex
 Female 7521 4153 (55.2) 3272 (78.8) 881 (21.2)
 Male 11,323 6547 (57.8) 5196 (79.4) 1351 (20.6)
 Missing 20 9 (45.0) 3 (33.3) 6 (66.7)
Age (years)
 15–24 3238 2059 (63.6) 1652 (80.2) 407 (19.8)
 25–34 5632 3139 (55.7) 2453 (78.1) 686 (21.9)
 35–44 3578 2041 (57.0) 1601 (78.4) 440 (21.6)
 45–54 2388 1423 (59.6) 1149 (80.7) 274 (19.3)
 55–64 1488 890 (59.8) 717 (80.6) 173 (19.4)
 65+ 2540 1157 (45.6) 899 (77.7) 258 (22.3)
Ethnicity
 White 3991 2442 (61.2) 1959 (80.2) 483 (19.8)
 Black African 3211 2031 (63.3) 1603 (78.9) 428 (21.1)
 Black Other 588 458 (77.9) 391 (85.4) 67 (14.6)
 Indian sub-continent 8079 4198 (52.0) 3300 (78.6) 898 (21.4)
 Mixed/other 2525 1330 (52.7) 1029 (77.4) 301 (22.6)
 Missing 470 250 (53.2) 189 (75.6) 61 (24.4)
Time since entry to the UK
 UK born 4431 3000 (67.7) 2495 (83.2) 505 (16.8)
 Within 2 years 2535 1313 (51.8) 979 (74.6) 334 (25.4)
 2–5 years 2999 1509 (50.3) 1154 (76.5) 355 (23.5)
 5–10 years 2743 1485 (54.1) 1149 (77.4) 336 (22.6)
 More than 10 years 4115 2329 (56.6) 1870 (80.3) 459 (19.7)
 Missing 2041 1073 (52.6) 824 (76.8) 249 (23.2)
TB lineage
 Beijing 1041 770 (74.0) 667 (86.6) 103 (13.4)
 Euro-American 7313 4300 (58.8) 3352 (78.0) 948 (22.0)
 Central Asian Strain 5280 3285 (62.2) 2674 (81.4) 611 (18.6)
 East Asian Indian 2674 1046 (39.1) 769 (73.5) 277 (26.5)
 Other/unknown 2554 1306 (51.1) 1008 (77.2) 298 (22.8)
 Missing 2    
IMD decile
 1 3933 2360 (60.0) 1868 (79.2) 492 (20.8)
 2 3645 2130 (58.4) 1678 (78.8) 452 (21.2)
 3 3008 1704 (56.6) 1334 (78.3) 370 (21.7)
 4 2301 1314 (57.1) 1066 (81.1) 248 (18.9)
 5 1655 906 (54.7) 695 (76.7) 211 (23.3)
 6 1183 652 (55.1) 516 (79.1) 136 (20.9)
 7 838 453 (54.1) 375 (82.8) 78 (17.2)
 8 728 398 (54.7) 302 (75.9) 96 (24.1)
 9 610 307 (50.3) 241 (78.5) 66 (21.5)
 10 474 243 (51.3) 194 (79.8) 49 (20.2)
 Missing 489 242 (49.5) 202 (83.5) 40 (16.5)
Drug misuse
 No 16,536 9241 (55.9) 7291 (78.9) 1950 (21.1)
 Yes 702 551 (78.5) 473 (85.8) 78 (14.2)
 Missing 1626 917 (56.4) 707 (77.1) 210 (22.9)
Alcohol misuse
 No 16,260 9160 (56.3) 7251 (79.2) 1909 (20.8)
 Yes 776 528 (68.0) 441 (83.5) 87 (16.5)
 Missing 1828 1021 (55.9) 779 (76.3) 242 (23.7)
Homelessness
 No 16,771 9480 (56.5) 7500 (79.1) 1980 (20.9)
 Yes 666 449 (67.4) 372 (82.9) 77 (17.1)
 Missing 1427 780 (54.7) 599 (76.8) 181 (23.2)
Imprisonment
 No 16,210 9097 (56.1) 7200 (79.1) 1897 (20.9)
 Yes 649 484 (74.6) 410 (84.7) 74 (15.3)
 Missing 2005 1128 (56.3) 861 (76.3) 267 (23.7)
Site of TB disease/smear status
 Pulmonary, smear positive 4959 3137 (63.3) 2448 (78.0) 689 (22.0)
 Pulmonary, smear negative/unknown 6952 4084 (58.7) 3279 (80.3) 805 (19.7)
 Extra-pulmonary 6947 3486 (50.2) 2742 (78.7) 744 (21.3)
 Missing 6 2 (33.3) 2 (100.0) 0 (0.0)
  1. IMD: index of multiple deprivation score. IMD score deciles represent relative levels of deprivation of income, employment, health, education, housing and services, crime and living environment for small areas in England and Wales, where 1 = most deprived and 10 = least deprived [29, 30]
  2. Patients with both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease were classed as having pulmonary disease