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Table 1 Patient characteristics, by increased level of care at discharge following hospital admission of adult patients hospitalised with COVID-19

From: Increased care at discharge from COVID-19: The association between pre-admission frailty and increased care needs after hospital discharge; a multicentre European observational cohort study

  Care level at discharge (compared to admission) Total
The same level of care at discharge An increased level of care at discharge
Sites (n = 638) (n = 193) (n = 831)
 Hospital A 58 (56.3) 45 (43.7) 103 (12.4)
 Hospital B 73 (77.7) 21 (22.3) 94 (11.3)
 Hospital C 32 (100) 0 (0) 32 (3.9)
 Hospital D 47 (61.8) 29 (38.2) 76 (9.1)
 Hospital E 14 (28.6) 35 (71.4) 49 (5.9)
 Hospital F 183 (86.7) 28 (13.3) 211 (25.4)
 Hospital G 17 (94.4) 1 (5.6) 18 (2.2)
 Hospital H 85 (88.5) 11 (11.5) 96 (11.6)
 Hospital I 79 (87.8) 11 (12.2) 90 (10.8)
 Hospital J 17 (68.0) 8 (32.0) 25 (3.0)
 Hospital K 6 (75.0) 2 (25.0) 8 (1.0)
 Hospital L 14 (100) 0 (0) 14 (1.7)
 Hospital M 13 (86.7) 2 (13.3) 15 (1.8)
Age
 Under 65 years 285 (90.5) 30 (9.5) 315 (37.9)
 65 to 79 years 198 (72.3) 76 (27.7) 274 (33.0)
 80 years or older 155 (64.0) 87 (36.0) 242 (29.1)
Sex
 Female 280 (75.9) 89 (24.1) 369 (44.4)
 Male 357 (77.4) 104 (22.6) 461 (55.5)
 Missing 1 0 1
Smoking status
 Never smokers 346 (76.5) 106 (23.4) 452 (54.4)
 Ex-smokers 226 (75.3) 74 (24.7) 300 (36.1)
 Current smokers 49 (80.3) 12 (19.7) 61 (7.3)
 Missing 17 1 18
Diabetes
 No 481 (77.0) 144 (23.0) 625 (75.2)
Yes 156 (76.1) 49 (23.9) 205 (24.7)
 Missing 1 0 1
Hypertension
 No 341 (78.8) 92 (21.2) 433 (52.1)
Yes (not on treatment) 70 (82.4) 15 (17.6) 164 (10.2)
Yes (on treatment) 227 (72.5) 86 (27.5) 313 (37.7)
Coronary artery disease
 No 521 (76.3) 162 (23.7) 683 (82.2)
 Yes 117 (79.1) 31 (20.9) 148 (17.8)
Elevated CRP (≥ 40)
 No 205 (71.2) 83 (28.8) 288 (34.7)
 Yes 433 (79.7) 110 (20.3) 543 (65.3)
Renal function (eGFR < 60)
 No 440 (77.5) 128 (22.5) 568 (68.4)
 Yes 180 (73.5) 65 (26.5) 245 (29.5)
 Missing 18 0 18
Care level at admission
 House/flat (no carer) 452 (75.8) 144 (24.2) 596 (71.7)
 House/flat (with carer) 58 (78.4) 16 (21.6) 74 (8.9)
 Sheltered care 27 (73.0) 10 (27.0) 37 (4.5)
 Residential care 48 (85.7) 8 (14.3) 56 (6.7)
 Nursing care 53 (81.5) 12 (18.5) 65 (7.8)
 Missing 0 3 3
Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)
 1, Very fit 53 (89.8) 6 (10.2) 59 (7.1)
 2, Fit 104 (87.4) 15 (12.6) 119 (14.3)
 3, Managing well 139 (86.9) 21 (13.1) 160 (19.3)
 4, Vulnerable 80 (80.0) 20 (20.0) 100 (12.0)
 5, Mildly frail 70 (63.1) 41 (36.9) 111 (13.4)
 6, Moderately frail 72 (61.5) 45 (38.5) 117 (14.1)
 7, Severely frail 99 (73.9) 35 (26.1) 134 (16.1)
 8, Very severely frail 14 (63.6) 8 (36.4) 22 (2.6)
 9, Terminally ill 3 (75.0) 1 (25.0) 4 (0.5)
 Missing 4 1 5