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Table 3 Increased care at discharge of patients hospitalised with COVID-19

From: Increased care at discharge from COVID-19: The association between pre-admission frailty and increased care needs after hospital discharge; a multicentre European observational cohort study

  Crude odds ratio (OR) Adjusted OR (aOR)& (n = 810)&&
OR (95%CI) p value aOR (95%CI) p value
Age
 Under 65 Reference Category Reference Category
 65 to 79 3.71 (2.18–6.30) < 0.0001 2.82 (1.57–5.06) 0.0005
 ≥ 80 5.79 (3.35–9.98) < 0.0001 3.87 (2.07–7.26) < 0.0001
Sex (female) Reference Category Reference Category
 Male 0.98 (0.68–1.40) 0.91 1.20 (0.81–1.79) 0.37
Smoking status (never) Reference Category Reference Category
 Ex-smokers 1.38 (0.95–2.02) 0.09 1.08 (0.71–1.63) 0.73
 Current smokers 0.92 (0.45–1.90) 0.83 1.05 (0.47–2.33) 0.90
Elevated CRP (≥ 40) 0.65 (0.45–0.94) 0.022 0.73 (0.49–1.09) 0.12
Patients with diabetes 1.12 (0.75–1.69) 0.57 0.99 (0.63–1.55) 0.97
Patients with CAD 0.82 (0.51–1.31) 0.41 0.49 (0.29–0.82) 0.007
Patients with hypertension
 Yes (not on treatment) 0.82 (0.43–1.59) 0.56 0.65 (0.32–1.32) 0.23
 Yes and on treatment 1.12 (0.77–1.63) 0.57 0.98 (0.64–1.50) 0.94
Patients with reduced renal function (eGFR < 60) 1.39 (0.95–2.03) 0.09 1.03 (0.67–1.58) 0.90
Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS 1 to 3) Reference Category Reference Category
 CFS 4 2.71 (1.38–5.34) 0.004 1.99 (0.97–4.11) 0.062
 CFS 5 5.63 (3.08–10.27) < 0.0001 3.77 (1.94–7.32)  0.0001
 CFS 6 5.90 (3.24–10.75) < 0.0001 4.04 (2.09–7.82) < 0.0001
 CFS 7 3.50 (1.90–6.47) < 0.0001 2.16 (1.12–4.20) 0.022
 CFS 8 4.30 (1.53–12.09) 0.006 3.19 (1.06–9.56) 0.039
 CFS 9&&&     
  1. &The multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression was adjusted for age group, sex, smoking, CRP, diabetes, CAD, hypertension, renal function, care level of admission, and the Clinical Frailty Scale
  2. &&Twenty-one observations were excluded due to having missing covariate data
  3. &&&The four patients that were terminally ill (CFS=9) were not included due to the low number of cases