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Table 2 Treatment effects of paracetamol and placebo on quality of life, discomfort, pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms. N = 95 (baseline), N = 86 (end of study)

From: Does paracetamol improve quality of life, discomfort, pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms in persons with advanced dementia living in long-term care facilities? A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover (Q-PID) trial

  Intervention Mean difference 95% CI p value
QUALIDEM-6D
Total score Paracetamol 1.3 -1.0–3.5 0.876
Placebo 1.5 -0.7–3.8
A—Care relationship Paracetamol 2.9 -1.0–6.9 0.128
Placebo -1.4 -5.3–2.5
B—Positive affect Paracetamol 0.3 -3.7–4.3 0.872
Placebo 0.7 -3.2–4.7
C—Negative affect Paracetamol 2.6 -1.4–6.6 0.919
Placebo 2.9 -1.0–6.9
D—Restless tense behaviour Paracetamol 2.1 -3.1–7.3 0.955
Placebo 2.3 -2.8–7.5
F—Social relationships Paracetamol -1.1 -5.3–3.1 0.192
Placebo 2.9 -1.3–7.0
G—Social isolation Paracetamol 0.9 -3.6–5.3 0.803
Placebo 0.1 -4.3–4.5
DS-DAT Paracetamol -0.1 -1.4–1.2 0.478
Placebo 0.6 -0.7–1.8
MOBID-2* Paracetamol 0.0 -0.5–0.5 0.605
Placebo -0.2 -0.7–0.3
NPI-NH††
Total score Paracetamol 1.5 -2.3–5.4 0.187
Placebo -2.1 -6.0–1.7
Psychosis Paracetamol -0.3 -1.4–0.8 0.935
Placebo -0.3 -1.4–0.8
Agitation Paracetamol 1.2 -0.7–3.0 0.077
Placebo -1.2 -3.0–0.7
Affective symptoms Paracetamol -0.3 -1.5–0.9 0.516
Placebo 0.2 -0.9–1.4
  1. Repeated linear mixed models, adjusted for order and period effects, and psychotropic use
  2. CI confidence interval, QUALIDEM-6D dementia-specific QoL measurement instrument, 6 domain version, DS-DAT Discomfort Scale-Dementia of Alzheimer Type, MOBID-2 Mobilization-Observation-Behaviour-Intensity-Dementia-2 pain scale, NPI-NH Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version
  3. *Higher score means more pain
  4. Higher score means better QoL
  5. Higher score means more discomfort
  6. ††Higher score means more neuropsychiatric symptoms