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Table 1 Basic characteristics

From: Development and validation of an artificial intelligence system for grading colposcopic impressions and guiding biopsies

Characteristic No. (%)
Training set Tuning set Validation set
Images, total no. 68,037 9751 23,479
Patients, total no. 13,604 1944 3887
Age (years)
 24–29 2694 (19.8) 399 (20.5) 988 (25.4)
 30–49 8815 (64.8) 1211 (62.3) 2058 (53.0)
 50–65 2095 (15.4) 334 (17.2) 841 (21.6)
Referral colposcopy indicationsa
 Primary screening resultsb 9989 (73.4) 1254 (64.5) 2337 (60.1)
 Suspicious clinical symptomsc 3687 (27.1) 735 (37.8) 1650 (42.4)
Distribution of pathological resultsd
 Normal/benign 4217 (31.0) 591 (30.4) 1205 (31.0)
 LSIL 4150 (30.5) 594 (30.6) 1188 (30.5)
 HSIL 4489 (33.0) 630 (32.4) 1270 (32.7)
 Cancer 748 (5.5) 129 (6.6) 224 (5.8)
  1. Abbreviations: HR-HPV high-risk human papillomavirus, ASC-US atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, LSIL low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, HSIL high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
  2. aThe percentages sum to over 100% due to the overlap of different colposcopy indications
  3. bPrimary screening results mainly included cytology (HSIL, LSIL, ASC-US, negative) and/or HPV status (HR-HPV positive without genotyping, HPV16/18, other HR-HPV positive, negative)
  4. cSuspicious clinical symptoms mainly included abnormal genital tract bleeding, suspicious cervical abnormality, unexplained cervicovaginal discharge, and other factors
  5. dWhen multiple lesions were present in a patient, the highest grade was used as the final pathological diagnosis