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Table 2 Participants’ characteristics

From: Updated adolescent diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: impact on prevalence and longitudinal body mass index trajectories from birth to adulthood

  Overall, n = 227 Original 2003 Rotterdam criteria Updated 2018 adolescent Rotterdam criteria
Original non-PCOS, n = 161 (70.93%) Original PCOS, n = 66 (29.07%) p value Updated non-PCOS, n = 190 (83.70%) Updated PCOS, n = 37 (16.30%) p value
Diagnostic criterion, n (%)
 OA 117 (51.54) 60 (37.27) 57 (86.36) < 0.001 80 (42.11) 37 (100.00) < 0.001
 HA 60 (28.30) 14 (9.40) 46 (73.02) < 0.001 23 (13.14) 37 (100.00) < 0.001
 PCOM 78 (35.29) 29 (18.35) 49 (77.78) < 0.001 58 (31.02) 20 (58.82) < 0.001
Free testosterone level (mean ± SD) 20.61 ± 13.33 16.42 ± 7.65 30.37 ± 17.94 < 0.001 17.00 ± 8.76 37.77 ± 17.52 < 0.001
Ferriman-Gallwey score (median, IQR) 0 (0, 2) 0 (0, 2) 0 (0, 2) 0.863 0 (0, 2) 0 (0, 4) 0.7352
Age of menarche (mean ± SD) 12.38 ± 1.09 12.45 ± 1.08 12.21 ± 1.12 0.131 12.44 ± 1.07 12.11 ± 1.17 0.094
Anthropometric characteristics
 Birth measurements (mean ± SD)
  Birth length (cm) 48.54 ± 2.85 48.51 ± 2.87 48.62 ± 2.83 0.801 48.58 ± 2.79 48.31 ± 3.19 0.592
  Birth weight (g) 3281.17 ± 600.40 3287.24 ± 590.66 3266.36 ± 627.90 0.813 3293.06 ± 586.96 3220.14 ± 670.58 0.500
  Birth head circumference (cm) 34.09 ± 1.87 34.13 ± 1.83 34.00 ± 1.97 0.631 34.15 ± 1.79 33.76 ± 2.26 0.243
 BMI categories at age 22, n (%)     0.066    0.003
  Underweight/healthy (< 25 kg/m2) 113 (49.78) 88 (54.66) 25 (37.88)   104 (54.75) 9 (24.32)  
  Overweight (≥ 25 to ≤ 29.9 kg/m2) 33 (14.54) 22 (13.66) 11 (16.67)   26 (13.68) 7 (18.92)  
  Obese (≥ 30 kg/m2) 81 (35.68) 51 (31.68) 30 (45.45)   60 (31.58) 21 (56.76)  
Demographic characteristics
 Annual family income at age 14, n (%)     0.767    0.886
  < $16,000 AUD 8 (3.64) 7 (4.55) 1 (1.52)   7 (3.83) 1 (2.70)  
  $16,000–40,000 AUD 52 (23.64) 37 (24.03) 15 (22.73)   43 (23.50) 9 (24.32)  
  $40,000–78,000 AUD 83 (37.73) 56 (36.36) 27 (40.91)   67 (36.61) 16 (43.34)  
  > $78,000 AUD 77 (35.00) 54 (35.06) 23 (34.85)   66 (36.07) 11 (29.73)  
 Personal weekly income at age 22, n (%)     0.071    0.191
  < $116 AUD 17 (10.56) 12 (9.84) 5 (12.82)   15 (10.49) 2 (11.11)  
  $116–604 AUD 83 (51.55) 69 (56.56) 14 (35.90)   77 (53.85) 6 (33.33)  
  > $604 AUD 61 (37.89) 41 (33.61) 20 (51.28)   51 (35.66) 10 (55.56)  
 Education level at age 22, n (%)     0.169    0.032
  ≤ year 12 92 (53.80) 70 (53.85) 22 (53.66)   80 (52.98) 12 (60.00)  
  College/others 35 (20.47) 23 (17.69) 12 (29.27)   28 (18.54) 7 (35.00)  
  University or above 44 (25.73) 37 (28.46) 7 (17.07)   43 (24.48) 1 (5.00)  
  Employed at age 22, n (%) 155 (87.57) 115 (88.46) 40 (85.11) 0.550 134 (88.16) 21 (84.00) 0.559
 Relationship status at age 22, n (%)     0.717    0.781
  Single 61 (35.67) 47 (36.15) 14 (34.15)   52 (34.67) 9 (42.86)  
  In a relationship 106 (61.99) 79 (60.77) 27 (65.85)   94 (62.67) 12 (57.14)  
  Married 4 (2.34) 4 (3.08) 0 (0)   4 (2.67) 0  
Lifestyle characteristics
 Smoking at age 22, n (%) 21 (11.80) 12 (9.23) 9 (18.75) 0.114 17 (11.11) 4 (16.00) 0.504
 Physical activity, median (IQR)
  Age 20 (metabolic minutes/week) 1989 (844, 3960) 2142 (1050, 4158) 1492 (452, 3465) 0.047 2079 (990, 4152) 1710 (231, 2520) 0.088
  Age 22 (metabolic minutes/week) 2049 (933, 4158) 2307 (1074, 4236) 1416 (555, 3141) 0.045 2064 (933, 4158) 1902 (888, 3702) 0.746
  Calories/day at age 14 (mean ± SD) 2078 ± 674 2044 ± 647 2155 ± 731 0.277 2065 ± 662 2145 ± 739 0.524
Pregnancy/antenatal factors
 Maternal antenatal history, n (%)
  Gestational diabetes 6 (2.64) 5 (3.11%) 1 (1.52%) 0.675 5 (2.63) 1 (2.70) 1.000
  Pre-existing diabetes 5 (2.20) 4 (2.48%) 1 (1.52%) 1.000 4 (2.11) 1 (2.70) 0.593
  Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia 45 (1.82) 34 (21.12%) 11 (16.67%) 0.445 38 (20.00) 7 (18.92) 0.880
  Pre-term delivery < 37 weeks 20 (8.97) 14 (8.92%) 6 (9.09%) 0.967 15 (8.06) 5 (13.51) 0.289
  Gestational age at delivery (mean ± SD) 39.15 ± 2.38 39.12 ± 2.28 39.23 ± 2.61 0.768 39.16 ± 2.26 39.14 ± 2.96 0.957
  1. t test, Fisher’s exact test, Pearson χ2 test, and Mann-Whitney test were used for comparisons between the groups
  2. BMI body mass index, HA hyperandrogenism, IQR interquartile range, OA oligo-anovulation, PCOM polycystic ovary morphology, PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome, SD standard deviation