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Table 3 Variables that are both risk and protective factors for non-communicable neurological disorders

From: Non-genetic risk and protective factors and biomarkers for neurological disorders: a meta-umbrella systematic review of umbrella reviews

Factor Effect size metric Effect size (95% CI) Neurological condition Level of evidence Study
Smoking RR 1.26 (1.05–1.50) Vascular dementia Weak Bellou, 2017 [49]
OR 1.52 (1.39–1.66) Multiple sclerosis Convincing Belbasis, 2015 [18, 51]
RR 0.64 (0.60–0.69) Parkinson disease II Bellou, 2016 [50]
RR 1.13 (1.05–1.22) Dementia Weak Bellou, 2017 [49]
Hypertension HR 1.59 (1.20–2.11) Vascular dementia Weak Bellou, 2017 [49]
RR 0.75 (0.61–0.90) Parkinson disease IV Bellou, 2016 [50]
Serum uric acid SMD to RR 0.58 (0.41–0.83) Dementia IV Li, 2017 [86]
SMD to RR 0.49 (0.27–0.87) Multiple sclerosis IV Li, 2017 [86]
RR 2.83 (2.13–3.76) Diabetic peripheral neuropathy IV Li, 2017 [86]
aRR 1.32 (1.23–1.41) Stroke mortality I Li, 2017 [86]
MD to OR 0.29 (0.11–0.76) Alzheimer disease IV Li, 2017 [86]
RR 0.65 (0.43–0.97) Parkinson disease incidence IV Li, 2017 [86]
OR 0.28 (0.14–0.57) Multiple sclerosis Weak Belbasis, 2015 [18, 51]
SMD to RR 0.22 (0.10–0.45) Neuromyelitis optica IV Li, 2017 [86]
Hedge’s to RR 0.21 (0.14–0.32) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis IV Li, 2017 [86]
OR 0.39 (0.27–0.57) Parkinson disease II Bellou, 2016 [50]
  1. Abbreviations: N/A not available, OR odds ratio, RR relative risk, HR hazard ratio, SMD standardized mean difference, aRR adjusted relative risk, MD mean difference, 95% CI 95% confidence interval