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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients in the development set and validation set

From: Development and validation of the VitaL CLASS score to predict mortality in stage IV solid cancer patients with septic shock in the emergency department: a multi-center, prospective cohort study

Characteristics Total set (N = 897) Development set (n = 469) Validation set (n = 428) p value
Age, years 66.0 (59.0–74.0) 67.0 (60.0–74.0) 66.0 (59.0–75.0) 0.38
Male 561 (62.5) 292 (62.3) 269 (62.9) 0.86
Hypertension 281 (31.3) 143 (30.5) 138 (32.2) 0.57
Diabetes mellitus 207 (23.1) 122 (26.0) 85 (19.9) 0.09
Cancer type 0.46
 Gastrointestinal 137 (15.3) 62 (13.2) 75 (17.5)  
 Hepatobiliary-pancreas 286 (31.9) 151 (32.2) 135 (31.5)  
 Lung 151 (16.8) 79 (16.8) 72 (16.8)  
 Gynecologic 82 (9.1) 49 (10.5) 33 (7.7)  
 Urologic 78 (8.7) 42 (9.0) 36 (8.4)  
 Others 163 (18.2) 86 (18.3) 77 (18.0)  
Focus of infection 0.21
 Pneumonia 209 (23.3) 106 (22.6) 103 (24.1)  
 Urinary tract infection 116 (12.9) 65 (13.9) 51 (11.9)  
 Colitis 129 (14.4) 59 (12.6) 70 (16.4)  
 Cholangitis/cholecystitis 238 (26.5) 130 (27.7) 108 (25.2)  
 Others/unknown 129 (14.4) 75 (16.0) 54 (12.6)  
 Multiple focus 76 (8.5) 34 (7.3) 42 (9.8)  
Vital signs at ED admission
 Systolic BP, mmHg 90.0 (77.0–111.0) 90.0 (79.0–112.0) 89.0 (76.0–110.0) 0.23
 Diastolic BP, mmHg 56.0 (48.0–66.0) 57.0 (48.0–68.0) 56.0 (48.0–64.5) 0.17
 Heart rate/min 116.0 (97.0–132.0) 116.0 (97.0–131.0) 115.0 (98.0–134.0) 0.50
 Respiratory rate/min 20.0 (18.0–22.0) 20.0 (18.0–23.0) 20.0 (18.0–22.0) 0.25
 Body temperature, °C 37.7 (36.8–38.7) 37.8 (36.9–38.8) 37.6 (36.7–38.5) 0.005
 Altered mentation 115 (12.8) 71 (15.1) 44 (10.3) 0.03
Laboratory values
 White blood cell, /μL 8100 (3000–15,360) 8000 (2870–15,300) 8300 (3140–15,545) 0.56
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 10.2 (8.6–11.6) 10.2 (8.5–11.6) 10.1 (8.8–11.8) 0.19
 Platelet count, × 1000/μL 143.0 (71.0–232.0) 143.0 (68.0–228.0) 142.5 (77.0–242.5) 0.53
 PT, INR 1.29 (1.15–1.47) 1.28 (1.17–1.46) 1.30 (1.15–1.48) 0.96
 Albumin, g/dL 2.8 (2.3–3.2) 2.8 (2.4–3.3) 2.7 (2.3–3.2) 0.21
 BUN, mg/dL 24.6 (17.4–38.3) 24.3 (17.0–36.0) 25.0 (18.0–41.0) 0.17
 Creatinine, mg/dL 1.25 (0.89–1.90) 1.19 (0.87–1.85) 1.32 (0.91–1.95) 0.06
 CRP, mg/dL 12.8 (6.1–22.1) 12.3 (6.5–21.7) 13.2 (5.6–23.6) 0.55
 Lactic acid, mmol/L 3.6 (2.0–5.5) 3.4 (1.9–5.3) 3.7 (2.2–5.8) 0.03
Severity score
 SOFA score 8.0 (6.0–10.0) 7.0 (5.0–10.0) 8.0 (6.0–11.0) 0.002
 APACHE II score 20.0 (15.0–26.0) 19.0 (14.0–25.0) 21.0 (15.0–27.0) 0.04
 Quick SOFA score 1.0 (1.0–2.0) 1.0 (1.0–2.0) 1.0 (1.0–2.0) 0.50
 NEWS 7.0 (5.0–10.0) 7.0 (5.0–10.0) 7.0 (5.0–9.0) 0.99
 MEWS 5.0 (4.0–7.0) 5.0 (4.0–7.0) 5.0 (4.0–6.0) 0.75
ICU admission 499 (55.6) 246 (52.5) 253 (59.1) 0.05
28-day mortality 237 (26.4) 120 (25.6) 117 (27.3) 0.55
  1. Values are presented as median (interquartile range) or number (percentage), as appropriate
  2. Abbreviations: APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, BP blood pressure, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CRP C-reactive protein, ED emergency department, ICU intensive care unit, INR international normalized ratio, MEWS Modified Early Warning Score, NEWS National Early Warning Score, PT prothrombin time, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment