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Table 2 Characteristics of the survivors and non-survivors and the univariable Cox proportional hazards model for 28-day mortality in the development set

From: Development and validation of the VitaL CLASS score to predict mortality in stage IV solid cancer patients with septic shock in the emergency department: a multi-center, prospective cohort study

Characteristics Comparison Univariable analysis
Survivors (n = 349) Non-survivors (n = 120) HR 95% CI p value
Age, years 66.0 (60.0–74.0) 69.0 (60.0–75.0) 1.018 1.000–1.036 0.05
Sex
 Male 210 (60.2) 82 (68.3) 1.000  
 Female 139 (39.8) 38 (31.7) 0.739 0.503–1.086 0.12
Hypertension
 No 250 (71.6) 76 (63.3) 1.000  
 Yes 99 (28.4) 44 (36.7) 1.382 0.954–2.004 0.09
Diabetes mellitus
 No 260 (74.5) 87 (72.5) 1.000  
 Yes 89 (25.4) 33 (27.7) 1.144 0.766–1.707 0.51
Cancer type
 Lung 40 (11.5) 39 (32.5) 1.000  
 Hepatobiliary-pancreas 122 (35.0) 29 (24.2) 0.329 0.203–0.533 < 0.001
 Gastrointestinal 50 (14.3) 12 (10.0) 0.325 0.170–0.622 0.001
 Gynecologic 44 (12.6) 5 (4.2) 0.164 0.065–0.416 < 0.001
 Urologic 33 (9.5) 9 (7.5) 0.362 0.175–0.748 0.006
 Others 60 (17.2) 26 (21.7) 0.548 0.334–0.901 0.02
Focus of infection
 Pneumonia 61 (17.5) 45 (37.5) 1.000  
 Urinary tract infection 53 (15.2) 12 (10.0) 0.390 0.206–0.738 0.004
 Colitis 45 (12.9) 14 (11.7) 0.519 0.285–0.945 0.03
 Cholangitis/cholecystitis 106 (30.4) 24 (20.0) 0.387 0.235–0.635 < 0.001
 Others/unknown 63 (18.1) 12 (10.0) 0.329 0.174–0.622 0.001
 Multiple focus 21 (6.0) 13 (10.8) 0.878 0.474–1.627 0.68
Vital signs at ED admission
 Systolic BP, mmHg 90.0 (79.0–110.0) 90.0 (78.0–118.5) 1.004 0.998–1.011 0.20
 Diastolic BP, mmHg 57.0 (48.0–66.0) 56.0 (49.0–70.0) 1.005 0.995–1.014 0.33
 Heart rate/min 115 (97–131) 117 (96–132) 1.001 0.993–1.008 0.84
 Respiratory rate/min 20 (18–22) 22 (20–26) 1.084 1.057–1.113 < 0.001
 Body temperature, °C 38.1 (37.1–39.0) 37.3 (36.6–37.9) 0.638 0.546–0.745 < 0.001
 Altered mentation 36 (50.7) 35 (49.3) 2.988 2.014–4.431 < 0.001
Laboratory values
 White blood cell, /μL 7890 (2740–14,300) 9815 (4365–17,570) 1.000 1.000–1.000 0.04
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 10.2 (8.5–11.6) 9.8 (8.4–11.5) 0.994 0.915–1.080 0.88
 Platelet count, × 1000/μL 144 (70–228) 140 (66–224) 1.000 0.998–1.001 0.69
 PT, INR 1.25 (1.14–1.43) 1.39 (1.25–1.61) 1.229 1.075–1.405 0.003
 Albumin, g/dL 2.9 (2.5–3.3) 2.5 (2.2–3.0) 0.451 0.334–0.610 < 0.001
 BUN, mg/dL 23 (16–33) 30 (19–44) 1.012 1.005–1.018 0.001
 Creatinine, mg/dL 1.16 (0.87–1.80) 1.29 (0.84–2.19) 1.104 0.987–1.233 0.08
 CRP, mg/dL 12.0 (5.8–20.6) 14.0 (7.6–25.4) 1.011 0.997–1.026 0.13
 Lactic acid, mmol/L 3.1 (1.8–4.9) 4.6 (2.5–8.3) 1.177 1.127–1.228 < 0.001
Severity scorea
 SOFA score 7.0 (5.0–9.0) 10.0 (7.0–13.0) 1.246 1.190–1.305 < 0.001
 APACHE II score 18.0 (14.0–23.0) 24.0 (18.0–32.0) 1.088 1.069–1.108 < 0.001
  1. Values are presented as median (interquartile range) or number (percentage), as appropriate
  2. Abbreviations: APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, BP blood pressure, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CI confidence interval, CRP C-reactive protein, ED emergency department, HR hazard ratio, INR international normalized ratio, PT prothrombin time, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  3. aSeverity scores were not included in the multivariate analysis for the final model