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Table 1 Characteristics of 556 studies assessing interventions for COVID-19 prevention, treatment or rehabilitation

From: Changes in evidence for studies assessing interventions for COVID-19 reported in preprints: meta-research study

Characteristics n = 556
Intervention (%)a
 Social distancing, lockdown, or travel restrictions 90 (17)
 Antimalarials 76 (14)
 Monoclonal antibodies 52 (10)
 Corticosteroids 37 (7)
 Otherb 288 (53)
Country of affiliation for the corresponding author (%)
 China 144 (26)
 USA 135 (24)
 Italy 39 (7)
 France 32 (6)
 UK 26 (5)
 Otherc 180 (32)
Data sharing (%)
 Data will be shared upon request to the authors 186 (33)
 Publicly available dataset 108 (19)
 No data sharing 62 (11)
 Unclear or unreported 200 (36)
Has a peer-reviewed evidence source (%) 284 (51)
Evidence source (%)
 Preprint 272 (49)
 Journal article 218 (39)
 Preprint plus journal article 66 (12)
Status of studies initially published as preprints n = 338
 Published in a journal (%) 66 (20)
 Accepted for publication (%) 2 (0)
 Unpublished, submitted to a journal 107 (32)
 Unpublished, will be submitted to a journal 9 (3)
 Unpublished, will not be submitted to a journal 5 (1)
 Unpublished, unknown status (no response from authors) 149 (44)
  1. aMay not add up to 100% because of rounding
  2. bOther interventions include health care organization, respiratory support, combination antivirals, antiretrovirals, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker, convalescent plasma, personal protective equipment, non-specific antiviral, broad-spectrum antiviral, anticoagulant, gas inhalation, advanced therapy medicinal products, organ support, population testing, antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, respiratory stimulants, antiparasitic, immunosuppressants, kinase inhibitors, radiation, rehabilitation calcium channel blockers, and vaccination
  3. cOther countries include Abu Dhabi, Albania, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Cuba, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hong-Kong, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovakia, Spain, South Africa, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Thailand, The Netherlands, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. All < 4% of total sample