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Table 1 Baseline characteristics per comorbidity cluster

From: Model-based comorbidity clusters in patients with heart failure: association with clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization

  Low-burden (n = 83,577) Metabolic-vascular (n = 73,284) Ischemic (n = 83,283) Anemia (n = 14,959) Metabolic (n = 63,281) Overall (n = 318,384)
Age
 Median [IQR] 71 [60, 79] 73 [66, 80] 78 [70, 82] 73 [62, 81] 67 [57, 74] 73 [63, 80]
Sex
 Female 42,440 (50.8%) 36,716 (50.1%) 40,818 (49.0%) 9529 (63.7%) 34,017 (53.8%) 163,520 (51.4%)
 Male 41,137 (49.2%) 36,568 (49.9%) 42,465 (51.0%) 5430 (36.3%) 29,264 (46.2%) 154,864 (48.6%)
Comorbidities
 AF 26,090 (31.2%) 35,031 (47.8%) 44,233 (53.1%) 1968 (13.2%) 16,844 (26.6%) 124,166 (39.0%)
 CAD 43,999 (52.6%) 63,890 (87.2%) 73,417 (88.2%) 1771 (11.8%) 32,617 (51.5%) 215,694 (67.7%)
 CVA 15,165 (18.1%) 44,157 (60.3%) 58,088 (69.7%) 3691 (24.7%) 8314 (13.1%) 129,415 (40.6%)
 PAD 10,766 (12.9%) 56,137 (76.6%) 64,058 (76.9%) 4010 (26.8%) 6676 (10.5%) 141,647 (44.5%)
 Hypertension 74,082 (88.6%) 72,855 (99.4%) 81,502 (97.9%) 13,890 (92.9%) 60,897 (96.2%) 303,226 (95.2%)
 Anemia 7609 (9.1%) 30,174 (41.2%) 33,804 (40.6%) 14,415 (96.4%) 10,224 (16.2%) 96,226 (30.2%)
 Diabetes 281 (0.3%) 73,081 (99.7%) 0 (0%) 2597 (17.4%) 63,263 (100.0%) 139,222 (43.7%)
 Obesity 2854 (3.4%) 25,323 (34.6%) 1688 (2.0%) 259 (1.7%) 36,812 (58.2%) 66,936 (21.0%)
 Renal failure 3585 (4.3%) 31,489 (43.0%) 16,081 (19.3%) 6059 (40.5%) 9854 (15.6%) 67,068 (21.1%)
 COPD 19,045 (22.8%) 37,795 (51.6%) 46,656 (56.0%) 4779 (31.9%) 18,113 (28.6%) 126,388 (39.7%)
 Cancer 11,227 (13.4%) 18,097 (24.7%) 25,782 (31.0%) 4947 (33.1%) 7599 (12.0%) 67,652 (21.2%)
 Liver disease 4506 (5.4%) 13,861 (18.9%) 8447 (10.1%) 3212 (21.5%) 8353 (13.2%) 38,379 (12.1%)
 Peptic ulcer 2274 (2.7%) 5168 (7.1%) 5418 (6.5%) 1074 (7.2%) 2089 (3.3%) 16,023 (5.0%)
 Dementia 4708 (5.6%) 5905 (8.1%) 10,913 (13.1%) 1897 (12.7%) 1567 (2.5%) 24,990 (7.8%)
 Depression 7950 (9.5%) 15,019 (20.5%) 14,723 (17.7%) 3947 (26.4%) 9647 (15.2%) 51,286 (16.1%)
 Alcohol misuse disorder 2335 (2.8%) 1862 (2.5%) 2845 (3.4%) 866 (5.8%) 1480 (2.3%) 9388 (2.9%)
No. of comorbidities at baseline
 2 or less 31,692 (37.9%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 374 (2.5%) 2773 (4.4%) 34,849 (10.9%)
 3 to 4 46,386 (55.5%) 1413 (1.9%) 12,859 (15.4%) 6939 (46.4%) 27,130 (42.9%) 94,727 (29.8%)
 5 to 6 5453 (6.5%) 23,548 (32.1%) 46,257 (55.5%) 6426 (43%) 27,668 (43.7%) 109,352 (34.3%)
 7 to 8 46 (0.1%) 33,594 (45.8%) 20,804 (25%) 1151 (7.7%) 5540 (8.8%) 61,135 (19.2%)
 Over 9 0 (0%) 14,729 (20.1%) 3363 (4%) 69 (0.5%) 160 (0.3%) 18,321 (5.8%)
Inpatient diagnosis (vs. outpatient diagnosis) 38,052 (45.5%) 40,079 (54.7%) 45,411 (54.5%) 8057 (53.9%) 31,845 (50.3%) 163,444 (51.3%)
Business line
 Medicare Advantage 50,158 (60.0%) 58,336 (79.6%) 63,766 (76.6%) 10,467 (70.0%) 37,752 (59.7%) 220,479 (69.2%)
 Commercial 33,419 (40.0%) 14,948 (20.4%) 19,517 (23.4%) 4492 (30.0%) 25,529 (40.3%) 97,905 (30.8%)
Race
 White 60,104 (71.9%) 48,509 (66.2%) 61,596 (74.0%) 9517 (63.6%) 41,694 (65.9%) 221,420 (69.5%)
 Black 10,277 (12.3%) 12,043 (16.4%) 9772 (11.7%) 2828 (18.9%) 11,322 (17.9%) 46,242 (14.5%)
 Hispanic 5200 (6.2%) 6786 (9.3%) 4711 (5.7%) 1162 (7.8%) 4916 (7.8%) 22,775 (7.2%)
 Asian 2064 (2.5%) 1332 (1.8%) 1619 (1.9%) 398 (2.7%) 947 (1.5%) 6360 (2.0%)
 Missing 5932 (7.1%) 4614 (6.3%) 5585 (6.7%) 1054 (7.0%) 4402 (7.0%) 21,587 (6.8%)
Education
 Less than 12 grade 213 (0.3%) 333 (0.5%) 202 (0.2%) 50 (0.3%) 249 (0.4%) 1047 (0.3%)
 High school diploma 26,027 (31.1%) 27,893 (38.1%) 27,614 (33.2%) 5239 (35.0%) 23,724 (37.5%) 110,497 (34.7%)
 Less than bachelor degree 44,827 (53.6%) 37,696 (51.4%) 44,452 (53.4%) 7643 (51.1%) 33,086 (52.3%) 167,704 (52.7%)
 Bachelor degree plus 11,994 (14.4%) 6811 (9.3%) 10,511 (12.6%) 1918 (12.8%) 5801 (9.2%) 37,035 (11.6%)
 Missing 516 (0.6%) 551 (0.7%) 503 (0.6%) 109 (0.7%) 421 (0.7%) 2101 (0.7%)
Income (in US dollars)
 < $40,000 23,672 (28.3%) 25,282 (34.5%) 27,664 (33.2%) 4762 (31.8%) 20,137 (31.8%) 101,517 (31.9%)
 $40,000–$74,000 21,529 (25.8%) 19,643 (26.8%) 21,849 (26.2%) 3600 (24.1%) 16,672 (26.3%) 83,293 (26.2%)
 $75,000–$124,999 17,020 (20.4%) 12,704 (17.3%) 14,310 (17.2%) 2435 (16.3%) 12,621 (19.9%) 59,090 (18.6%)
 $125,000–$199,999 6551 (7.8%) 3684 (5.0%) 4341 (5.2%) 891 (6.0%) 4102 (6.5%) 19,569 (6.1%)
 $200,000+ 3602 (4.3%) 1360 (1.9%) 1957 (2.3%) 423 (2.8%) 1642 (2.6%) 8984 (2.8%)
 Missing 11,203 (13.4%) 10,611 (14.5%) 13,162 (15.8%) 2848 (19.0%) 8107 (12.8%) 45,931 (14.4%)
Medication at baseline
 Cardioselective beta-blockers 26,936 (32.2%) 32,949 (45.0%) 36,051 (43.3%) 4351 (29.1%) 22,095 (34.9%) 122,382 (38.4%)
 Non-cardioselective beta-blockers 11,602 (13.9%) 13,169 (18.0%) 11,643 (14.0%) 1882 (12.6%) 9463 (15.0%) 47,759 (15.0%)
 ACEi/ARBs 33,005 (39.5%) 41,120 (56.1%) 37,711 (45.3%) 5925 (39.6%) 31,073 (49.1%) 148,834 (46.7%)
 MRA 3091 (3.7%) 3893 (5.3%) 2864 (3.4%) 733 (4.9%) 3233 (5.1%) 13,814 (4.3%)
 Thiazide 9444 (11.3%) 12,071 (16.5%) 10,997 (13.2%) 1964 (13.1%) 9809 (15.5%) 44,285 (13.9%)
 Loop diuretics 19,171 (22.9%) 28,629 (39.1%) 24,597 (29.5%) 4772 (31.9%) 21,361 (33.8%) 98,530 (30.9%)
 Potassium-sparing diuretics 44 (0.1%) 90 (0.1%) 71 (0.1%) 23 (0.2%) 72 (0.1%) 300 (0.1%)
 Double therapy (ACEi/ARBs + any beta-blocker) 19,842 (23.7%) 27,291 (37.2%) 24,207 (29.1%) 2990 (20.0%) 18,142 (28.7%) 92,472 (29.9%)
 Triple therapy (ACEi/ARB + any beta blocker + MRA) 1530 (1.8%) 1905 (2.6%) 1273 (1.5%) 179 (1.2%) 1475 (2.3%) 6362 (2.0%)
  1. Abbreviations: IQR inter-quartile range, AF atrial fibrillation, CAD coronary artery disease, CVA cerebrovascular disease, PAD peripheral artery disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, No. number, US United States, ACEis angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists
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