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Table 2 Association between any-cause mortality and comorbidity cluster

From: Model-based comorbidity clusters in patients with heart failure: association with clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization

  Low-burden Metabolic-vascular Ischemic Anemia Metabolic Overall
  N = 83,577 N = 73,284 N = 83,283 N = 14,959 N = 63,281 N = 318,030
Deaths, n (%) 18,497 (22.2%) 17,943 (24.5%) 32,709 (39.3%) 4615 (30.9%) 8774 (13.9%) 82,538 (26%)
Person-months 3,666,146 2,270,448 3,246,368 545,985 2,334,907 12,063,855
Deaths per 1000 person-months (95% CI) 5.05 (4.97–5.12) 7.9 (7.8–8.02) 10.08 (9.96–10.18) 8.45 (8.21–8.70) 3.76 (3.68–3.84) 6.84 (6.80–6.89)
Model 1a N = 77,325 N = 68,414 N = 77,425 N = 13,850 N = 58,635 N = 295,649
Deaths, n (%) 17,291 (22.4%) 16,414 (24.7%) 30,510 (39.4%) 4325 (31.2%) 8251 (14.1%) 77,276 (26.1%)
Adjusted HRa (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref) 1.87 (1.74–2.01) 1.24 (1.16–1.33) 1.46 (1.30–1.64) 1.18 (1.09–1.29)  
Model 2b 2707 3267 3265 247 2483 N = 12,091
Deaths, n (%) 510 (20.1%) 755 (24.6%) 1166 (38%) 98 (28.3%) 281 (12.1%) 3478 (28.8%)
Adjusted HRb (95% CI) 1.00 (Ref) 1.60 (1.44, 1.79) 1.62 (1.47, 1.80) 1.60 (1.30, 1.96) 0.96 (0.84, 1.10)  
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, ref. reference
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, race, education, medical insurance status, whether diagnosis was gained inpatient or in outpatient and HF medications; time-varying coefficient model; excludes patients with missing data on race (21,557) and education (2097)
  3. bAdjusted for age, sex, race, education, medical insurance status, whether diagnosis was gained inpatient or in outpatient, HF medications, ejection fraction, smoking status; proportional hazards met; excludes patients with missing data on race (21,557), education (2097), ejection fraction (304,477), and smoking status (282,333)
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