Skip to main content

Table 1 Maternal and newborn characteristics of 235 toddlers included in the analysis by ZIKV exposure status

From: In utero Zika virus exposure and neurodevelopment at 24 months in toddlers normocephalic at birth: a cohort study

  In utero ZIKV exposure (N = 156) ZIKV unexposed (N = 79) P value
Maternal characteristics
 Age at time of pregnancy (years)    
 Mean ± SD 30.7 ± 6.3 28.6 ± 6.0 0.01
 Interquartile range 26–36 25–33  
 Occupation—n (%)    < 0.001
  - Student 5 (3.2) 3 (3.8)  
  - Self-employed/business owner/farmer 11 (7.1) 2 (2.5)  
  - Executive/highly skilled worker 22 (14.1) 10 (12.7)  
  - Intermittent profession 10 (6.4) 24 (30.4)  
  - Salaried employee 60 (38.5) 16 (20.2)  
  - Not employed 47 (30.1) 24 (30.4)  
  - Unknown or declined to respond 1 (0.6) 0 (0)  
 Educational attainment of mother—n (%)    0.04
  - Primary 30 (19.2) 7 (8.9)  
  - Secondary 47 (30.1) 31 (39.2)  
  - Tertiary 66 (42.3) 39 (49.4)  
  - Unknown or declined to respond 13 (8.3) 2 (2.5)  
 Educational attainment of father—n (%)    0.04
  - Primary 22 (14.1) 4 (5.1)  
  - Secondary 39 (25.0) 28 (35.4)  
  - Tertiary 32 (20.5) 22 (27.8)  
  - Unknown or declined to respond 62 (39.7) 25 (31.6)  
 Residence—n (%)    < 0.001
  - Guadeloupe 88 (56.4) 12 (15.1)  
  - Martinique 65 (41.7) 63 (79.7)  
  - French Guiana 3 (1.9) 4 (5.1)  
 Parity—n (%)    0.05
  0 64 (41.0) 41 (51.9)  
  1 51 (32.7) 27 (34.2)  
  2 25 (16.0) 3 (3.9)  
  3+ 16 (10.3) 8 (10.1)  
 Previous adverse pregnancy outcomes—n (%)
  - Congenital abnormalities 0 (0) 0 (0)
  - Stillbirth* 6 (3.8) 0 (0) 0.18
  - Medical termination of pregnancy* 1 (0.6) 0 (0) 1
 Lifestyle practices during 2016–2017 pregnancy—n (%)
  - Alcohol consumption* 1 (0.6) 0 (0) 1
  - Drug use* 1 (0.6) 1 (1.4) 1
  - Smoking* 5 (3.2) 5 (6.8) 0.38
  - Use of mosquito repellents* 116 (75.3) 47 (61.0) 0.04
  - Use of larvicides* 91 (59.5) 44 (59.5) 1
Newborn characteristics
 Gestational age (weeks)    
 Mean ± SD 39.1 ± 1.3 39.1 ± 1.5 0.84
 Delivery type—n (%)*    
  Cesarean 29 (18.6) 8 (10.1) 0.13
   - Guadeloupe 17/88 (19.3) 2/12 (16.7) 1
   - Martinique 10/64 (15.6) 5/63 (7.9) 0.29
   - French Guiana 2/3 (66.7) 1/4 (25.0) 0.49**
 Sex—n (%)
  Male 70 (44.9) 40 (50.6) 0.49
 Birth weight (g)
  Mean 3176 ± 476 3196 ± 451 0.75
 Medical consultations since birth—n (%)*
  - Hospitalization > 1 day 33 (21.1) 17 (21.5) 1
  - Emergency room consultation 84 (54.5) 52 (65.8) 0.13
  - Osteopath consultation 28 (18.1) 13 (16.7) 0.93
  - Psychomotor therapist consultation 3 (2.0) 1 (1.3) 1
  - Psychologist consultation 1 (0.6) 0 (0) 1
  - Speech therapist consultation 5 (3.2) 0 (0) 0.26
  - Chest physiotherapist consultation 44 (28.2) 29 (35.4) 0.32
  - Physiotherapist consultation 6 (3.9) 2 (2.6) 0.89
  1. *Data are missing for stillbirth = 1; medical termination of pregnancy = 1; alcohol consumption = 6; drug use = 6; smoking = 6; mosquito repellent use = 4; larvicide use = 8; delivery type = 1; emergency room consultation = 2; osteopath consultation = 2; psychomotor consultation = 3; psychologist consultation = 1; speech therapist consultation = 2; physiotherapist consultation = 2
  2. **Fisher’s exact test