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Table 2 Associations between plasma sex hormones and conventional adenoma in postmenopausal women from the NHSI and NHSII

From: Plasma sex hormones and risk of conventional and serrated precursors of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women

Biomarker Conventional adenoma, OR (95% CI)a
Q1 (lowest) Q2 Q3 Q4 (highest) P for trend Per 1-SDb
Estrone
 No. of cases 63 78 70 74   
 Model 1 1 1.30 (0.93–1.84) 1.20 (0.84–1.71) 1.39 (0.98–1.99) 0.12 1.10 (0.98–1.24)
 Model 2 1 1.32 (0.93–1.87) 1.20 (0.83–1.72) 1.35 (0.92–2.00) 0.19 1.09 (0.96–1.25)
Total estradiol
 No. of cases 73 81 68 84   
 Model 1 1 1.15 (0.83–1.59) 0.98 (0.69–1.37) 1.41 (1.01–1.96) 0.06 1.15 (0.99–1.33)
 Model 2 1 1.14 (0.82–1.59) 0.98 (0.68–1.40) 1.39 (0.96–2.01) 0.09 1.16 (0.98–1.38)
Free estradiol
 No. of cases 67 63 66 81   
 Model 1 1 0.94 (0.66–1.33) 1.04 (0.73–1.48) 1.48 (1.05–2.09) 0.01 1.21 (1.04–1.41)
 Model 2 1 0.93 (0.65–1.33) 1.10 (0.76–1.58) 1.54 (1.02–2.31) 0.03 1.23 (1.02–1.47)
Total testosterone
 No. of cases 139 119 118 110   
 Model 1 1 0.88 (0.68–1.13) 0.85 (0.66–1.09) 0.84 (0.64–1.09) 0.34 0.96 (0.87–1.05)
 Model 2 1 0.88 (0.68–1.13) 0.83 (0.64–1.07) 0.82 (0.62–1.07) 0.26 0.95 (0.86–1.04)
Free testosterone
 No. of cases 94 116 110 129   
 Model 1 1 1.26 (0.95–1.66) 1.23 (0.92–1.62) 1.56 (1.19–2.05) 0.001 1.19 (1.08–1.32)
 Model 2 1 1.18 (0.89–1.56) 1.09 (0.82–1.46 1.33 (0.99–1.78) 0.03 1.13 (1.01–1.25)
SHBG
 No. of cases 158 128 125 83   
 Model 1 1 0.73 (0.58–0.94) 0.71 (0.56–0.91) 0.45 (0.34–0.60) <.0001 0.77 (0.70–0.84)
 Model 2 1 0.74 (0.58–0.96) 0.73 (0.56–0.94) 0.47 (0.35–0.64) <.0001 0.78 (0.70–0.86)
Total estradiol/total testosterone
 No. of cases 67 70 74 74   
 Model 1 1 1.04 (0.73–1.47) 1.10 (0.78–1.55) 1.24 (0.87–1.75) 0.26 1.08 (0.94–1.25)
 Model 2 1 1.05 (0.73–1.50) 1.07 (0.74–1.54) 1.20 (0.81–1.76) 0.43 1.07 (0.91–1.26)
  1. Abbreviations: NHS the Nurses’ Health Study, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, SHBG sex hormone-binding globulin, MET metabolic equivalent task, AHEI Alternative Healthy Eating Index
  2. aModel 1 was adjusted for age (continuous), case or control status, fasting status (yes or no), time period of endoscopy (in 2-year intervals), number of prior endoscopies (continuous), and time in years since the most recent endoscopy (continuous); model 2 was additionally adjusted for race (Caucasian or non-Caucasian), family history of colorectal cancer (yes or no), height (continuous), smoking status (never, ever, or current), AHEI score (quartile), body mass index (continuous), physical activity (< 3.0, 3.0–8.9, 9.0–17.9, 18.0–26.9, ≥ 27.0 MET-hours/week), alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–9.9, 10.0–14.9, ≥ 15.0 g/day), regular aspirin use (yes or no), and postmenopausal hormone therapy (never, ever, or current)
  3. bSD was the standard deviation of log-transformed hormone levels: 0.58 for estrone, 0.79 for total estradiol, 0.84 for free estradiol, 0.50 for total testosterone, 0.64 for free testosterone, 0.62 for SHBG, and 0.80 for the ratio of total estradiol to total testosterone
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