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Table 3 Associations between plasma sex hormones and serrated polyp in postmenopausal women from the NHSI and NHSII

From: Plasma sex hormones and risk of conventional and serrated precursors of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women

Biomarker Serrated polyp, OR (95% CI)a
Q1 (lowest) Q2 Q3 Q4 (highest) P for trend Per 1-SDb
Estrone
 No. of cases 45 48 47 53   
 Model 1 1 1.13 (0.74–1.71) 1.11 (0.73–1.69) 1.39 (0.92–2.11) 0.33 1.07 (0.93–1.23)
 Model 2 1 1.11 (0.72–1.69) 1.05 (0.69–1.61) 1.26 (0.79–1.99) 0.74 1.03 (0.88–1.21)
Total estradiol
 No. of cases 52 47 48 65   
 Model 1 1 0.93 (0.62–1.39) 0.96 (0.64–1.43) 1.51 (1.04–2.19) 0.02 1.24 (1.04–1.47)
 Model 2 1 0.90 (0.59–1.35) 0.86 (0.57–1.30) 1.30 (0.85–1.99) 0.15 1.17 (0.95–1.44)
Free estradiol
 No. of cases 47 38 54 55   
 Model 1 1 0.77 (0.50–1.19) 1.20 (0.81–1.80) 1.40 (0.94–2.10) 0.01 1.28 (1.07–1.52)
 Model 2 1 0.69 (0.44–1.08) 1.09 (0.72–1.65) 1.14 (0.70–1.86) 0.13 1.18 (0.95–1.46)
Total testosterone
 No. of cases 96 96 88 89   
 Model 1 1 1.02 (0.76–1.36) 0.90 (0.67–1.21) 0.96 (0.71–1.29) 0.66 0.98 (0.88–1.09)
 Model 2 1 1.01 (0.76–1.36) 0.86 (0.64–1.16) 0.88 (0.65–1.20) 0.32 0.95 (0.85–1.05)
Free testosterone
 No. of cases 75 86 93 92   
 Model 1 1 1.17 (0.85–1.60) 1.34 (0.99–1.83) 1.47 (1.08–2.01) 0.003 1.19 (1.06–1.34)
 Model 2 1 1.04 (0.76–1.43) 1.05 (0.76–1.45) 1.03 (0.73–1.44) 0.49 1.05 (0.92–1.19)
SHBG
 No. of cases 117 102 78 81   
 Model 1 1 0.79 (0.60–1.04) 0.59 (0.44–0.79) 0.55 (0.41–0.73) <.0001 0.79 (0.71–0.87)
 Model 2 1 0.89 (0.67–1.18) 0.70 (0.51–0.96) 0.72 (0.51–1.02) 0.01 0.86 (0.76–0.97)
Total estradiol/total testosterone
 No. of cases 48 45 46 59   
 Model 1 1 0.91 (0.60–1.38) 0.95 (0.63–1.43) 1.35 (0.91–2.01) 0.08 1.16 (0.98–1.38)
 Model 2 1 0.86 (0.56–1.32) 0.86 (0.56–1.32) 1.23 (0.78–1.92) 0.24 1.13 (0.92–1.38)
  1. Abbreviations: NHS the Nurses’ Health Study, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, SHBG sex hormone-binding globulin, MET metabolic equivalent task, AHEI Alternative Healthy Eating Index
  2. aModel 1 was adjusted for age (continuous), case or control status, fasting status (yes or no), time period of endoscopy (in 2-year intervals), number of prior endoscopies (continuous), and time in years since the most recent endoscopy (continuous); model 2 was additionally adjusted for race (Caucasian or non-Caucasian), family history of colorectal cancer (yes or no), height (continuous), smoking status (never, ever, or current), AHEI score (quartile), body mass index (continuous), physical activity (< 3.0, 3.0–8.9, 9.0–17.9, 18.0–26.9, ≥ 27.0 MET-hours/week), alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–9.9, 10.0–14.9, ≥ 15.0 g/day), regular aspirin use (yes or no), and postmenopausal hormone therapy (never, ever, or current)
  3. bSD was the standard deviation of log-transformed hormone levels: 0.58 for estrone, 0.79 for total estradiol, 0.84 for free estradiol, 0.50 for total testosterone, 0.64 for free testosterone, 0.62 for SHBG, and 0.80 for the ratio of total estradiol to total testosterone
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