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Table 4 Associations of plasma sex hormones with advanced conventional adenoma and large serrated polyp in postmenopausal women from the NHSI and NHSII

From: Plasma sex hormones and risk of conventional and serrated precursors of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women

Biomarker Q1 (lowest) Q2 Q3 Q4 (highest) P for trend Per 1-SDb
Advanced conventional adenoma (N = 208), OR (95% CI)a
 Estrone 1 2.10 (1.16–3.83) 2.10 (1.13–3.90) 1.75 (0.89–3.45) 0.09 1.19 (0.97–1.45)
 Total estradiol 1 1.20 (0.71–2.03) 1.12 (0.63–1.97) 1.29 (0.70–2.36 0.24 1.18 (0.90–1.54)
 Free estradiol 1 0.77 (0.43–1.38) 1.29 (0.74–2.23) 1.36 (0.72–2.57) 0.20 1.20 (0.91–1.59)
 Total testosterone 1 0.66 (0.43–1.01) 0.82 (0.56–1.22) 0.78 (0.52–1.17) 0.72 0.97 (0.84–1.13)
 Free testosterone 1 1.25 (0.78–2.00) 1.24 (0.76–2.01) 1.72 (1.08–2.73) 0.02 1.24 (1.03–1.48)
 SHBG 1 0.85 (0.58–1.24) 0.66 (0.43–0.99) 0.40 (0.24–0.67) < .0001 0.71 (0.61–0.83)
 Total estradiol/total testosterone 1 1.21 (0.70–2.10) 1.13 (0.64–2.00) 1.00 (0.53–1.88) 0.94 0.99 (0.78–1.26)
Large serrated polyp (≥ 10 mm) (N = 34), OR (95% CI)a
 Estrone 1 0.87 (0.19–3.90) 0.92 (0.22–3.86) 1.77 (0.48–6.54) 0.48 1.19 (0.74–1.93)
 Total estradiol 1 0.66 (0.15–2.81) 0.69 (0.15–3.18) 1.64 (0.50–5.45) 0.51 1.17 (0.74–1.85)
 Free estradiol 1 0.29 (0.06–1.45) 0.66 (0.16–2.70) 1.48 (0.38–5.76) 0.38 1.24 (0.77–2.02)
 Total testosterone 1 0.65 (0.23–1.82) 0.62 (0.22–1.77) 0.92 (0.35–2.42) 0.65 0.91 (0.62–1.35)
 Free testosterone 1 0.65 (0.23–1.86) 0.74 (0.24–2.24) 0.80 (0.28–2.32) 0.79 1.06 (0.71–1.58)
 SHBG 1 0.63 (0.26–1.52) 0.34 (0.11–1.02) 0.47 (0.17–1.35) 0.02 0.87 (0.77–0.98)
 Total estradiol/total testosterone 1 0.98 (0.23–4.12) 0.53 (0.11–2.58) 1.11 (0.28–4.41) 0.93 0.98 (0.58–1.65)
  1. Abbreviations: NHS the Nurses’ Health Study, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, SHBG sex hormone-binding globulin, MET metabolic equivalent task, AHEI Alternative Healthy Eating Index
  2. aAdjusted for age (continuous), case or control status, fasting status (yes or no), time period of endoscopy (in 2-year intervals), number of prior endoscopies (continuous), and time in years since the most recent endoscopy (continuous), race (Caucasian or non-Caucasian), family history of colorectal cancer (yes or no), height (continuous), smoking status (never, ever, or current), AHEI score (quartile), body mass index (continuous), physical activity (< 3.0, 3.0–8.9, 9.0–17.9, 18.0–26.9, ≥ 27.0 MET-hours/week), alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–9.9, 10.0–14.9, ≥ 15.0 g/day), regular aspirin use (yes or no), and postmenopausal hormone therapy (never, ever, or current). Participants with non-advanced lesions and no polyps were treated as the reference
  3. bSD was the standard deviation of log-transformed hormone levels: 0.58 for estrone, 0.79 for total estradiol, 0.84 for free estradiol, 0.50 for total testosterone, 0.64 for free testosterone, 0.62 for SHBG, and 0.80 for the ratio of total estradiol to total testosterone
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