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Table 1 Characteristics of hospitals and patients by group allocation during the baseline period, Shanghai, China

From: A cluster-randomized field trial to reduce cesarean section rates with a multifaceted intervention in Shanghai, China

 Intervention Group (N = 5498)Control group (N = 5254)
Hospitals
 Type of hospital, no. (%)
  Tertiary hospitals1941 (35.3)1813 (34.5)
  Secondary hospitals3557 (64.7)3441 (65.5)
Patients
 Maternal age at delivery, years
  < 18 years, no. (%)12 (0.2)19 (0.4)
  18–34 years, no. (%)4842 (89.9)4686 (90.1)
  ≥ 35 years, no. (%)533 (9.9)494 (9.5)
  Missing11155
 Pre-pregnancy body mass index, kg/m222.0 ± 3.222.3 ± 3.3
 Parity, no. (%)
  03546 (64.5)3399 (64.7)
  11828 (33.3)1715 (32.7)
  ≥ 2121 (2.2)137 (2.6)
  Missing33
 Gestational age at delivery, no. (%)
  <  37 weeks312 (5.7)292 (5.6)
  37–41 weeks5167 (94.0)4948 (94.2)
  ≥ 42 weeks19 (0.4)14 (0.3)
 Previous cesarean deliveries, no. (%)
  No4722 (86.0)4516 (86.1)
  Yes768 (14.0)727 (13.9)
  Missing811
 Risk level of pregnancy, no. (%)
  Low2830 (51.5)2671 (50.8)
  High2668 (48.5)2583 (49.2)
 Presentation of the baby
  Cephalic5088 (94.7)4964 (95.7)
  Breech/transverse/oblique lie284 (5.3)222 (4.3)
  Missing12668
 Mode of delivery
  Vaginal delivery3034 (55.2)3003 (57.2)
  Assisted vaginal delivery128 (2.3)70 (1.3)
  Planned cesarean delivery2000 (36.4)1855 (35.3)
  Intrapartum cesarean delivery336 (6.1)326 (6.2)
 Birth outcome
  Live birth5479 (99.7)5236 (99.7)
  Fetal death14 (0.3)13 (0.3)
  Stillbirth1 (0.02)2 (0.04)
  Neonatal death4 (0.07)3 (0.06)
 Neonatal birthweight, g
  < 1500, no. (%)16 (0.3)17 (0.3)
  1500–2499, no. (%)185 (3.4)191 (3.6)
  2500–3999, no. (%)4901 (89.2)4663 (88.8)
  ≥ 4000, no. (%)395 (7.2)383 (7.3)
  Missing10
  1. Outcome: twins combined
  2. Neonatal admission to ICU: twins combined