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Table 3 Cesarean section rates by obstetric characteristics according to the modified Robson classification by group allocation and period, Shanghai, China

From: A cluster-randomized field trial to reduce cesarean section rates with a multifaceted intervention in Shanghai, China

 Intervention group (10 hospitals)Control group (10 hospitals)Effect estimates
Cesarean by indications (modified Robson classification)Baseline (N = 5498)Evaluation (N = 5092)Rate change%Baseline (N = 5254)Evaluation (N = 5429)Rate change%Adjusted OR (95%CI)p value
1. Nulliparous, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, spontaneous labor
 Total no.15861100 16191259   
 Cs, no.(%)129 (8.1)89 (8.1)0160 (9.9)101 (8.0)−1.91.24 (0.71, 2.17)0.44
2. Nulliparous, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, induced labor
 Total no.717761 660805   
 Cs, no.(%)160 (22.3)132 (17.4)−4.9141 (21.4)148 (18.4)−3.00.87 (0.52, 1.46)0.60
3. Nulliparous, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, CS before labor
 Total no.819650 762714   
 Cs, no.(%)819 (100)650 (100)0762 (100)714 (100)0NANA
4. Multiparous, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, without a previous CS, spontaneous labor
 Total no.796764 753886   
 Cs, no.(%)22 (2.8)11 (1.4)−1.413 (1.7)10 (1.1)−0.60.85 (0.27, 2.72)0.78**
5. Multiparous, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, without a previous CS, induced labor
 Total no.159329 166294   
 Cs, no.(%)11 (6.9)21 (6.4)−0.511 (6.6)14 (4.8)−1.81.03 (0.32, 3.35)0.96**
6. Multiparous, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, without a previous CS, CS before labor
 Total no.97103 96136   
 Cs, no.(%)97 (100)103 (100)096 (100)136 (100)0NANA
7. Multiparous, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, with a previous CS
 Total no.688853 664842   
 Cs, no.(%)666 (96.8)827 (97.0)0.2631 (95.0)818 (97.2)2.20.52 (0.21, 1.29)0.15**
8. Singleton, breech, transverse or oblique lie#
 Total no.284230 222206   
 Cs, no.(%)237 (83.5)202 (87.8)4.3213 (96.0)197 (95.6)−0.42.05 (0.4, 10.65)0.39
9. Multiple pregnancy (twins or higher-order multiples)
 Total no.11390 6664   
 Cs, no.(%)108 (95.6)84 (93.3)−2.358 (87.9)59 (92.2)4.30.25 (0.02, 3.25)0.28**
10. Singleton, cephalic, < 37 weeks
 Total no.217201 231217   
 Cs, no.(%)80 (36.9)88 (43.8)6.991 (39.4)107 (49.3)9.90.7 (0.34, 1.43)0.32
99. Unknown
 Total no.2211 156   
 Cs, no.(%)7 (31.8)2 (18.2)−13.65 (33.3)1 (16.7)−16.6NANA
  1. **A logistic model was used because the calculations for the GEE model did not converge. For this model, p values of less than 0.001 were considered to indicate statistical significance and p values of less than 0.003 were considered to indicate marginal significance
  2. #The number of subjects in transverse or oblique lie was small while the CS rates for non-cephalic presentations were very high; thus, these groups were combined into one
  3. Abbreviation: NA not applicable