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Table 4 Hospital-based cesarean section rates by the primary indication and by the group allocation during the baseline and post-intervention periods, Shanghai, China

From: A cluster-randomized field trial to reduce cesarean section rates with a multifaceted intervention in Shanghai, China

 Intervention group (10 hospitals)Control group (10 hospitals)p value
Cesarean indicationsBaseline (N = 5498)Evaluation (N = 5092)Baseline (N = 5254)Evaluation (N = 5429) 
Scarred uterus, no. (%)716 (13.0)897 (17.6)632 (12.3)863 (15.9)0.24
Cesarean section without medical indication, no. (%)480 (8.7)401 (7.9)456 (8.7)429 (7.9)0.21
Abnormal fetal heart rate (FHR) pattern, no. (%)325 (5.9)257 (5.1)413 (7.9)395 (7.3)0.08
Breech or transverse presentation, no. (%)230 (4.2)173 (3.4)200 (3.8)178 (3.3)0.24
Macrosomia, no. (%)135 (2.5)106 (2.1)109 (2.1)92 (1.7)0.71
Prolonged labor, no. (%)65 (1.2)69 (1.4)49 (0.9)39 (0.7)0.30
Other indications, no. (%)382 (7.0)303 (6.0)317 (6.0)300 (5.5)0.11
Total, no. (%)2333 (42.4)2206 (43.3)2176 (41.4)2296 (42.3)0.01