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Table 5 Obstetrical intervention rates by group allocation and period, and their impact on cesarean section rate

From: A cluster-randomized field trial to reduce cesarean section rates with a multifaceted intervention in Shanghai, China

 Intervention group (10 hospitals) Control group (10 hospitals) Effect estimates
Obstetrical interventionsBaseline (N = 5498)Evaluation (N = 5092)Rate change%p valueBaseline (N = 5254)Evaluation (N = 5429)Rate change%p valueAdjusted OR (95%CI)p value
All deliveries
Women without a previous CS
 Planned cesarean delivery, no. (%)1287 (27.3)1067 (25.8)−1.50.851177 (26.1)1169 (26.0)−0.10.070.9 (0.73, 1.1)0.30
Women with a previous CS or not
 Planned cesarean delivery, no. (%)2000 (36.4)1946 (38.2)1.80.721855 (35.3)2049 (37.7)2.40.030.85 (0.69, 1.05)0.13
Labor induction, no. (%)1050 (19.1)1282 (25.2)6.1< 0.00011010 (19.3)1347 (24.9)5.6< 0.00011.07 (0.77, 1.5)0.67
Women who attempted labor
 Total no.34983146  33993380    
Women without a previous CS
 Intrapartum cesarean delivery, no. (%)307 (8.9)222 (7.2)−1.70.08312 (9.3)234 (7.0)−2.30.021.07 (0.69, 1.64)0.76
Women with a previous CS or not
 Intrapartum cesarean delivery, no. (%)336 (9.6)263 (8.4)−1.20.10326 (9.6)254 (7.5)−2.10.031.08 (0.74, 1.98)0.68
Oxytocin during labor, no. (%)529 (15.1)542 (17.3)2.2< 0.0001594 (17.5)622 (18.5)1.00.311.32 (0.81, 2.16)0.26
Epidural analgesia, no. (%)1135 (32.6)959 (30.6)−2.00.002595 (17.6)837 (25.7)8.1< 0.00010.61 (0.20, 1.81)0.36
Doula, no. (%)1315 (37.6)1422 (45.3)7.7< 0.00011051 (34.7)1115 (37.0)2.30.271.35 (0.88, 2.08)0.17
Women without a previous CS
 Assisted vaginal delivery, no. (%)127 (3.7)102 (3.3)−0.40.7769 (2.1)99 (3.0)0.90.030.61 (0.31, 1.21)0.15
Women with a previous CS or not
 Assisted vaginal delivery, no. (%)128 (3.7)103 (3.3)−0.40.7770 (2.1)103 (3.1)1.00.030.6 (0.31, 1.18)0.13
Episiotomy, no. (%)
 Median/lateral1289 (36.9)1006 (32.1)−4.8< 0.00011532 (45.1)1374 (40.7)−4.40.690.78 (0.46, 1.33)0.36