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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants by cohort

From: Estimating the burden of iron deficiency among African children

CharacteristicKenya
n = 1484
Uganda
n = 1374
Burkina Faso
n = 348
South Africa
n = 894
The Gambia
n = 753
Pooled
n = 4853
Age in years, n/total (%)
 < 1321/1484 (21.6)26/1374 (1.9)21/348 (6.0)475/894 (53.1)0/753 (0.0)843/4853 (17.4)
 1–< 2597/1484 (40.2)459/1374 (33.4)185/348 (53.2)418/894 (46.8)16/753 (2.1)1675/4853 (34.5)
 2–< 3170/1484 (11.5)622/1374 (45.3)142/348 (40.8)1/894 (0.1)188/753 (25.0)1123/4853 (23.1)
 3–< 4159/1484 (10.7)176/1374 (12.8)00201/753 (26.7)536/4853 (11.0)
 4–8237/1484 (16.0)91/1374 (6.6)00348/753 (46.2)676/4853 (13.9)
Age in years, median (IQR)1.7 (1.1, 3.1)2.0 (2.0, 3.0)1.9 (1.6, 2.2)1.0 (1.0, 1.0)3.8 (2.9, 4.9)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)
Gender: females, n/total (%)726/1484 (48.9)678/1374 (49.3)173/348 (49.7)449/894 (50.2)331/753 (46.8)2378/4853 (49.0)
Underweight*, n/total (%)114/429 (26.6)113/1368 (8.3)60/327 (18.4)n/a150/593 (25.3)437/2717 (16.1)
Inflammation, n/total (%)392/1437 (27.3)316/1337 (23.6)112/330 (33.9)157/894 (17.6)112/753 (14.9)1089/4751 (22.9)
Malaria, n/total (%)262/1199 (21.9)92/1353 (6.8)66/321 (20.6)n/a84/751 (11.2)504/4518 (11.2)
Parasite density, median (IQR)2295 (604, 6619)122 (36, 350)3714 (887, 18,103)n/an/a1386 (224, 5523)
  1. n/a not available, IQR interquartile range
  2. *Underweight was defined as weight-for-age z-score < − 2. Not measured in the South African cohort
  3. †Inflammation was defined as C-reactive protein > 5 mg/L or α1-antichymotrypsin > 0.6 g/dL (in The Gambia)
  4. ‡Malaria was defined as P. falciparum parasitemia and parasite density as parasites/μL. Children in South Africa were not exposed to malaria and parasite density data was not available for The Gambia. Pooled parasite density did not include South African or Gambian data