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Table 3 IRRs of infection-related hospital admissions in different time periods after an antibiotic prescription comparing different levels of prior antibiotic use (propensity-matched cohorts with URTI, LRTI, UTI, Otitis Media or Externa)

From: The effectiveness of frequent antibiotic use in reducing the risk of infection-related hospital admissions: results from two large population-based cohorts

  CPRDSAIL
Days 1–3 afterDays 4–30 afterMonths 3–6 afterDays 1–3 afterDays 4–30 afterMonths 3–6 after
Quintile of prior antibiotic useStratumIRR (95% CI)IRR (95% CI)IRR (95% CI)IRR (95% CI)IRR (95% CI)IRR (95% CI)
 All      
Lowest ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Low 1.01 (0.88–1.16)1.20 (1.05–1.37)1.23 (1.07–1.42)1.10 (0.96–1.25)1.07 (0.95–1.19)1.33 (1.20–1.48)
Middle 0.95 (0.84–1.07)1.15 (1.03–1.28)1.37 (1.21–1.55)0.93 (0.79–1.09)1.17 (1.03–1.33)1.62 (1.43–1.82)
High 0.90 (0.79–1.02)1.32 (1.18–1.49)1.77 (1.57–2.00)1.06 (0.91–1.25)1.42 (1.25–1.61)2.10 (1.87–2.36)
Highest 0.90 (0.77–1.04)1.52 (1.34–1.72)2.26 (1.92–2.67)0.90 (0.74–1.08)1.88 (1.63–2.16)2.48 (1.17–2.84)
 No comorbidity#      
Lowest ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Low 1.15 (0.93–1.41)1.22 (1.00–1.49)1.32 (1.04–1.66)1.17 (1.00–1.36)1.10 (0.96–1.26)1.40 (1.23–1.58)
Middle 1.01 (0.84–1.22)1.10 (0.93–1.31)1.66 (1.34–2.07)0.98 (0.81–1.19)1.23 (1.04–1.45)1.75 (1.51–2.03)
High 0.97 (0.79–1.20)1.31 (1.08–1.59)2.33 (1.88–2.87)1.19 (0.97–1.47)1.62 (1.37–1.91)2.64 (2.29–3.02)
Highest 1.18 (0.90–1.55)1.44 (1.14–1.81)3.22 (2.29–4.53)1.01 (0.79–1.30)2.46 (2.00–3.02)2.90 (2.44–3.45)
 Comorbidity#      
Lowest ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Low 0.91 (0.75–1.10)1.18 (0.99–1.41)1.20 (1.00–1.43)0.95 (0.74–1.21)1.01 (0.84–1.22)1.20 (0.99–1.44)
Middle 0.90 (0.77–1.05)1.18 (1.02–1.36)1.23 (1.05–1.43)0.84 (0.64–1.11)1.09 (0.89–1.34)1.39 (1.13–1.70)
High 0.86 (0.73–1.01)1.34 (1.16–1.55)1.57 (1.33–1.84)0.89 (0.69–1.16)1.16 (0.95–1.43)1.25 (1.01–1.54)
Highest 0.80 (0.67–0.95)1.57 (1.35–1.82)2.05 (1.69–2.47)0.77 (0.58–1.02)1.37 (1.12–1.67)2.02 (1.58–2.58)
  1. #Based on Charlson Comorbidity Score with score of 0 classified as no comorbidity and scores 1+ as comorbidity present