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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study subjects at their initial ischemic stroke or TIA events, 2007–2016

From: Impact of multiple cardiovascular medications on mortality after an incidence of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

Cardiovascular treatment groups
  Total, n = 52,619 0 medication, n = 4259 (8.1%) 1 medication, n = 4837 (9.2%) 2 medications, n = 10,705 (20.3%) 3 medications, n = 12,112 (23.0%) 4 medications, n = 10,197 (19.4%) 5 medications, n = 6177 (11.7%) ≥ 6 medications, n = 4332 (8.2%) P value
Sex, % women 27,419 (52.1) 2256 (53.0) 2654 (54.9) 5507 (51.4) 6096 (50.3) 5283 (51.8) 3294 (53.3) 2329 (53.8) < 0.01
Age, (years), mean ± SD 72.0 ± 11.9 71.7 ± 13.3 71.9 ± 13.6 70.7 ± 12.5 71.8 ± 11.7 72.6 ± 11.1 72.9 ± 10.7 73.1 ± 10.6 < 0.01
Smoking (%)
 Current 9847 (18.7) 877 (20.6) 911 (18.8) 2252 (21.0) 2401 (19.8) 1822 (17.9) 948 (15.4) 636 (14.7)  
 Former 16,458 (31.3) 1186 (27.9) 1349 (27.9) 3144 (29.4) 3855 (31.8) 3304 (32.4) 2121 (34.3) 1499 (34.6)  
 Never 24,507 (46.6) 1997 (46.9) 2364 (48.9) 4930 (46.1) 5442 (44.9) 4767 (46.8) 2929 (47.4) 2078 (48.0)  
 Missing 1807 (3.4) 199 (4.7) 213 (4.4) 379 (3.5) 414 (3.4) 304 (3.0) 179 (2.9) 119 (2.8)  
Alcohol (%)
 Current 26,023 (49.5) 1923 (45.2) 2132 (44.1) 5152 (48.1) 6133 (50.6) 5216 (51.2) 3222 (52.2) 2245 (51.8)  
 Former 1728 (3.3) 116 (2.7) 189 (3.9) 355 (3.3) 410 (3.4) 318 (3.1) 213 (3.5) 127 (2.9)  
 Never 8658 (16.5) 712 (16.7) 788 (16.3) 1700 (15.9) 1920 (15.9) 1659 (16.3) 1070 (17.3) 809 (18.7)  
 Missing 16,210 (30.8) 1508 (35.4) 1728 (35.7) 3498 (32.7) 3649 (30.1) 3004 (29.5) 1672 (27.1) 1151 (26.6)  
BMI status (%)
 Normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) 12,506 (23.8) 1052 (24.7) 1327 (27.4) 2786 (26.0) 2922 (24.1) 2350 (23.1) 1299 (21.0) 770 (17.8)  
 Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) 14,897 (28.3) 1080 (25.4) 1229 (25.4) 2879 (26.9) 3408 (28.1) 3062 (30.0) 1933 (31.3) 1306 (30.2)  
 Obese (≥ 30.0 kg/m2) 11,131 (21.2) 715 (16.8) 670 (13.9) 1748 (16.3) 2410 (19.9) 2382 (23.4) 1727 (28.0) 1479 (34.1)  
 Underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) 1075 (2.0) 109 (2.6) 182 (3.8) 268 (2.5) 272 (2.3) 151 (1.5) 58 (0.9) 35 (0.8)  
 Missing 13,010 (24.7) 1303 (30.6) 1429 (29.5) 3024 (28.3) 3100 (25.6) 2252 (22.1) 1160 (18.8) 742 (17.1)  
BP status (%)
 Normal (BP < 140/90 mmHg) 21,263 (40.4) 1608 (37.8) 2191 (45.3) 4537 (42.4) 4780 (39.5) 3966 (38.9) 2432 (39.4) 1749 (40.4)  
 Stage 1 hypertension (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg) 15,626 (29.7) 1066 (25.0) 1221 (25.2) 2841 (26.5) 3658 (30.2) 3293 (32.3) 2109 (34.1) 1438 (33.2)  
 Stage 2 hypertension (BP ≥ 160/100 mmHg) 5166 (9.8) 355 (8.3) 332 (6.9) 766 (7.2) 1198 (9.9) 1184 (11.6) 765 (12.4) 566 (13.1)  
 Stage 3 hypertension (systolic BP ≥ 180 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 110 mmHg) 2413 (4.6) 154 (3.6) 129 (2.7) 284 (2.7) 508 (4.2) 578 (5.7) 406 (6.6) 354 (8.2)  
 Missing 8078 (15.4) 1070 (25.1) 958 (19.8) 2263 (21.1) 1953 (16.1) 1159 (11.4) 454 (7.4) 221 (5.1)  
TC status (%)
 Optimal (< 5.2 mmol/L) 16,562 (31.5) 995 (23.4) 1092 (22.6) 2648 (24.7) 3560 (29.4) 3636 (35.7) 2571 (41.6) 2060 (47.6)  
 Intermediate (5.3–6.2 mmol/L) 7898 (15.0) 519 (12.2) 626 (12.9) 1596 (14.9) 1929 (15.9) 1598 (15.7) 974 (15.8) 656 (15.1)  
 High (> 6.2 mmol/L) 4510 (8.6) 314 (7.4) 386 (8.0) 921 (8.6) 1111 (9.2) 902 (8.9) 551 (8.9) 325 (7.5)  
 Missing 23,649 (44.9) 2431 (57.1) 2733 (56.5) 5540 (51.8) 5512 (45.5) 4061 (39.8) 2081 (33.7) 1291 (29.8)  
Townsend score (%)
 1 (least deprived) 10,959 (20.8) 809 (19.0) 1037 (21.4) 2256 (21.1) 2627 (21.7) 2155 (21.1) 1248 (20.2) 827 (19.1)  
 2 10,833 (20.6) 851 (20.0) 1058 (21.9) 2216 (20.7) 2496 (20.6) 2083 (20.4) 1306 (21.1) 823 (19.0)  
 3 9949 (18.9) 827 (19.4) 952 (19.7) 2051 (19.2) 2168 (17.9) 1932 (19.0) 1173 (19.0) 846 (19.5)  
 4 8613 (16.4) 745 (17.5) 734 (15.2) 1716 (16.0) 2011 (16.6) 1639 (16.1) 1004 (16.3) 764 (17.6)  
 5 (most deprived) 5995 (11.4) 494 (11.6) 515 (10.7) 1255 (11.7) 1400 (11.6) 1113 (10.9) 724 (11.7) 494 (11.4)  
 Missing 6270 (11.9) 533 (12.5) 541 (11.2) 1211 (11.3) 1410 (11.6) 1275 (12.5) 722 (11.7) 578 (13.3)  
History of PCI (%) 262 (0.5) 13 (0.3) 6 (0.1) 26 (0.2) 42 (0.4) 51 (0.5) 43 (0.7) 81 (1.9)  
Comorbidity (%)
 Hypertension 29,382 (55.8) 1802 (42.3) 1604 (33.2) 3547 (33.1) 6353 (52.5) 7208 (70.7) 5058 (81.9) 3810 (88.0) < 0.01
 Hyperlipidaemia 7510 (14.3) 433 (10.2) 463 (9.6) 1257 (11.7) 1644 (13.6) 1629 (16.0) 1187 (19.2) 897 (20.7) < 0.01
 Arrhythmia 8159 (15.5) 645 (15.1) 449 (9.3) 1095 (10.2) 1611 (13.3) 1851 (18.2) 1331 (21.6) 1177 (27.2) < 0.01
 Heart failure 2235 (4.3) 154 (3.6) 98 (2.0) 233 (2.2) 373 (3.1) 446 (4.4) 415 (6.7) 516 (11.9) < 0.01
 PVD 2752 (5.2) 209 (4.9) 178 (3.7) 450 (4.2) 557 (4.6) 583 (5.7) 427 (6.9) 348 (8.0) < 0.01
 Diabetes 8921 (17.0) 568 (13.3) 511 (10.6) 1313 (12.3) 1845 (15.2) 1933 (19.0) 1442 (23.3) 1309 (30.2) < 0.01
 Dementia 2549 (4.8) 271 (6.4) 518 (10.7) 653 (6.1) 518 (4.3) 324 (3.2) 170 (2.8) 95 (2.2) < 0.01
 COPD 4424 (8.4) 297 (7.0) 412 (8.5) 881 (8.2) 1058 (8.7) 892 (8.8) 517 (8.4) 367 (8.5) 0.02
 Asthma 6888 (13.1) 494 (11.6) 679 (14.0) 1418 (13.3) 1642 (13.6) 1292 (12.7) 789 (12.8) 574 (13.3) < 0.01
 Liver disease 338 (0.6) 45 (1.1) 45 (0.9) 59 (0.6) 79 (0.7) 61 (0.6) 29 (0.5) 20 (0.5) < 0.01
 Peptic ulcer disease 2974 (5.7) 240 (5.6) 282 (5.8) 594 (5.6) 689 (5.7) 587 (5.8) 346 (5.6) 236 (5.5) 0.98
 RA 1094 (2.1) 96 (2.3) 113 (2.3) 199 (1.9) 259 (2.1) 206 (2.0) 132 (2.1) 89 (2.1) 0.51
 CKD 9366 (17.8) 666 (15.6) 597 (12.4) 1346 (12.7) 1922 (16.0) 2045 (20.1) 1495 (24.2) 1259 (29.2) < 0.01
  1. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, PCI percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention, PVD peripheral vascular disease, RA rheumatoid arthritis