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Table 2 Associations of the FI-64 and chronic disease clusters with 10-year all-cause mortality

From: Course of frailty stratified by physical and mental multimorbidity patterns: a 5-year follow-up of 92,640 participants of the LifeLines cohort study

  Cox-regression analyses, model 1* Cox-regression analyses, model 2**
  HR [95% CI] p HR [95% CI] p
Separate models per determinant:
1. Frailty index *100 (range 1–100) 1.05 [1.05–1.06] < .001 1.05 [1.05–1.06] < .001
2. Frailty (yes/no) 2.20 [1.96–2.48] < .001 2.02 [1.75–2.31] < .001
3. Multimorbidity (range 0–10) 1.17 [1.12–1.21] < .001 1.14 [1.10–1.19] < .001
4. Psychiatric disorders 1.18 [1.06–1.33] .004 1.10 [0.97–1.24] .137
5. Musculoskeletal diseases 0.95 [0.86–1.05] .331 1.01 [0.89–1.12] .889
6. Brain diseases 0.97 [0.85–1.10] .598 0.99 [0.87–1.13] .915
7. Lung disease 1.27 [1.12–1.44] < .001 1.20 [1.03–1.38] .016
8. Heart disease 1.24 [1.12–1.38] < .001 1.16 [1.02–1.32] .022
9. Endocrine disease 1.24 [1.09–1.42] .002 1.10 [0.93–1.29] .283
10. Gastrointestinal diseases 1.17 [0.91–1.51] .220 1.26 [0.94–1.60] .126
11. Cancer 1.95 [1.73–2.18] < .001 2.25 [1.98–2.57] < .001
12. Cerebrovascular disease 1.65 [1.33–2.04] < .001 1.65 [1.33–2.04] < .001
13. Kidney disease 1.91 [1.32–2.78] .001 1.46 [1.11–1.93] .008
Combined model frailty with multimorbidity:
• Frailty index *100 1.05 [1.05–1.06] < .001 1.05 [1.04–1.06] < .001
• Multimorbidity 0.99 [0.95–1.03] .568 1.00 [0.95–1.05] .876
Combined model frailty with all disease clusters:
• Frailty (yes/no) 2.01 [1.76–2.29] < .001 1.84 [1.56–2.17] < .001
• Psychiatric disorders 1.08 [0.96–1.21] .209 0.99 [0.87–1.13] .897
• Musculoskeletal diseases 0.84 [0.75–0.93] .001 0.88 [0.78–0.99] .033
• Brain diseases 0.92 [0.81–1.04] .198 0.94 [0.82–1.07] .358
• Lung disease 1.13 [0.99–1.28] .069 1.09 [0.94–1.26] .267
• Heart disease 1.08 [0.97–1.21] .162 1.04 [0.91–1.19] .549
• Endocrine disease 1.04 [0.91–1.20] .554 0.99 [0.84–1.18] .993
• Gastrointestinal diseases 1.10 [0.85–1.41] .481 1.13 [0.86–1.48] .375
• Cancer 1.84 [1.64–2.06] < .001 2.16 [1.89–2.47] < .001
• Cerebrovascular disease 1.34 [1.07–1.66] .009 1.25 [0.94–1.66] .124
• Kidney disease 1.59 [1.10–2.32] .015 1.79 [1.21–2.65] .003
  1. *Model 1 is adjusted for age, gender, and level of education
  2. **Model 2 is additionally adjusted for lifestyle characteristics (partner status, smoking, alcohol use, BMI)