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Table 2 Associations between maternal E-DII and DASH scores (per 1-SD increase) and secondary childhood adiposity measures

From: Maternal dietary quality, inflammatory potential and childhood adiposity: an individual participant data pooled analysis of seven European cohorts in the ALPHABET consortium

  Early-childhood (2.8 ± 0.3 years) Mid-childhood (6.1 ± 0.6 years) Late-childhood (10.6 ± 1.2 years)
SST, mm   SST, mm   FMI, kg/m2   FFMI, kg/m2   SST, mm   FMI, kg/m2   FFMI, kg/m2  
β (95% CI) I2 (%) β (95% CI) I2 (%) β (95% CI) I2 (%) β (95% CI) I2 (%) β (95% CI) I2 (%) β (95% CI) I2 (%) β (95% CI) I2 (%)
E-DII
 Pre − 0.11 (−0.23, 0.01) 0 − 0.04 (− 0.22, 0.14) 0 − 0.01 (− 0.04, 0.03) 0 − 0.04 (− 0.08, 0.003) 0 − 0.17 (− 0.76, 0.41) 0.03 (− 0.10, 0.16) − 0.03 (−-0.10, 0.05)
 Np/Nc 2959/2   2536/2   2034/2   2038/2   1025/1   848/1   848/1  
 Preg − 0.01 (− 0.14, 0.13) 13 0.09 (− 0.14, 0.33) 29 0.03 (− 0.03, 0.09) 25 − 0.06 (− 0.16, 0.03) 67* 0.41 (− 0.23, 1.06) 0.03 (− 0.03, 0.10) 0 − 0.06 (− 0.08, − 0.03)*** 0
 Np/Nc 2749/3   3184/4   2059/4   2063/4   780/1   6739/2   6739/2  
 Early 0.07 (− 0.10, 0.24) 0 − 0.01 (− 0.28, 0.25) 0 0.01 (− 0.10, 0.13) 41 − 0.13 (− 0.32, 0.06) 77* 0.20 (− 0.43, 0.82) 0.04 (− 0.09, 0.17) − 0.04 (− 0.12, 0.04)
 Np/Nc 1716/2   1513/2   1120/3   1119/3   836/1   702/1   702/1  
 Late − 0.04 (− 0.17, 0.08) 0 0.15 (− 0.07, 0.38) 17 0.03 (− 0.01, 0.07) 0 − 0.001 (− 0.04, 0.04) 0 0.31 (− 0.28, 0.90) 0.04 (− 0.03, 0.11) 12 − 0.04 (− 0.10, 0.01) 52
 Np/Nc 2880/2   3182/3   1980/2   1984/2   969/1   6885/2   6885/2  
DASH
 Pre − 0.03 (− 0.16, 0.09) 2 − 0.18 (− 0.36, 0.01) 0 − 0.04 (− 0.08, 0.003) 0 0.03 (− 0.01, 0.08) 0 − 0.29 (− 0.88, 0.31) − 0.10 (− 0.23, 0.03) 0.05 (− 0.03, 0.12)
 Np/Nc 2959/2   2536/2   2034/2   2038/2   1025/1   848/1   848/1  
 Preg − 0.06 (− 0.18, 0.07) 0 − 0.02 (− 0.29, 0.26) 41 − 0.02 (− 0.05, 0.02) 0 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.06) 0 − 0.54 (− 1.21, 0.12) − 0.09 (− 0.15, − 0.03)** 0 0.03 (− 0.002, 0.06) 0
 Np/Nc 2749/3   3184/4   2059/4   2063/4   780/1   6739/2   6739/2  
 Early − 0.10 (− 0.28, 0.08) 0 0.10 (− 0.41, 0.61) 68 − 0.07 (− 0.15, 0.01) 0 0.03 (− 0.03, 0.09) 0 − 0.58 (− 1.22, 0.06) − 0.12 (− 0.25, 0.01) 0.06 (− 0.02, 0.14)
 Np/Nc 1716/2   1513/2   1120/3   1119/3   836/1   702/1   702/1  
 Late − 0.01 (− 0.14, 0.11) 0 − 0.06 (− 0.24, 0.13) 0 − 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.03) 0 − 0.001 (− 0.05, 0.04) 0 − 0.28 (− 0.88, 0.32) − 0.07 (− 0.13, − 0.01)* 0 0.03 (− 0.002, 0.05) 0
 Np/Nc 2880/2   3182/3   1980/2   1984/2   969/1   6885/2   6885/2  
  1. Values are adjusted pooled effect estimates [β (95% CI)] expressed for a 1-SD increment in dietary scores, heterogeneity measure (I2), and number of participants and studies included (Np/Nc) across different outcomes and conception periods, as labelled. Effect estimates were adjusted for maternal education, ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal height, parity, energy intake (for DASH analysis only), cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and child sex and age at measurement
  2. β (effect estimates) and the I2 (heterogeneity) test have separate P values
  3. E-DII energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index, DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, SST sum of skinfold thickness, FMI fat mass index, FFMI fat-free mass index, I2 I-squared, Pre pre-pregnancy, Preg pregnancy, Early early pregnancy, Late late pregnancy, Np number of participants included, Nc number of cohorts included
  4. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001