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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants by adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD)

From: The Southern European Atlantic Diet and all-cause mortality in older adults

  SEAD scorea (quartiles)
1 2 3 4 Missing
Deathsb 181 159 145 162 77
n 688 761 787 929 318
Sex—menc (%) 40.1 46.8 46.9 47.5 42.1
Agec 70.3 (6.9) 69.8 (6.9) 69.8 (6.6) 69.5 (6.2) 71.0 (7.6)
Educational levelc (%)
 Primary or less 66.0 58.2 61.1 53.1* 61.1
 Secondary 22.4 22.2 22.0 25.3 20.8
 University 11.6 19.6 16.9 21.6 18.1
Tobacco smokingc (%)
 Never 60.2 54.9 59.5 59.4* 61.6
 Former 26.2 31.1 31.2 30.5 23.8
 Current 13.5 14.0 9.3 10.0 14.5
Diabetesc (%) 18.0 12.8 19.8 20.3* 21.6
Cardiovascular diseasec (%) 7.61 4.33 7.22 4.96 7.05
Respiratory diseasec (%) 8.82 7.85 9.68 6.77 6.32
Musculoskeletal diseasec (%) 53.0 47.4 51.8 49.2 49.3
Cancerc (%) 2.85 1.61 1.17 3.96* 2.48
Depressionc (%) 12.1 7.4 9.9 5.8* 11.7
Leisure-time physical activityd (MET-hours/week) 19.8 (13.4) 20.7 (13.2) 21.5 (13.5) 22.9 (14.1)* 19.7 (14.2)
Time watching TVd (h/day) 2.89 (1.72) 2.72 (1.47) 2.77 (1.49) 2.67 (1.40) 2.88 (1.82)
Body mass indexd (kg/m2) 28.2 (4.3) 28.4 (4.3) 29.0 (4.6) 28.7 (4.3)* 28.7 (5.3)
Energy intaked (kcal/day) 2014 (531) 1965 (492) 1952 (464) 1934 (453) 1853 (594)
White meat consumptiond (g/day) 33.3 (30.4) 33.7 (29.3) 37.8 (28.9) 38.5 (27.0)* 31.6 (30.0)
Fruit consumptiond (g/day) 296 (181) 324 (167) 338 (176) 341 (167)* 310 (182)
Refined grains consumptiond (g/day) 223 (92) 206 (93) 202 (92) 177 (85)* 204 (95)
  1. Values are means (standard deviations) unless otherwise indicated. *p value < 0.05 for differences in means (ANOVA) or proportions (Pearson’s chi-squared) across categories of the SEAD score
  2. aSex-specific medians were used as the threshold for all food components, except wine. Quartile values of the SEAD score: quartile 1, ≤ 2; quartile 2, 3; quartile 3, 4; quartile 4, ≥ 5
  3. bThe number of deaths/1000 person-years [95% confidence interval] for increasing quartiles of the SEAD score was 26.8 [22.6, 32.1], 20.5 [17.2, 24.7], 17.9 [15.0, 21.6], and 16.9 [14.2, 20.2], respectively
  4. cAt baseline
  5. dThree-year cumulative values (baseline and 3-year follow-up if available)