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Table 2 Association between adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD) score and all-cause death (n = 3165)

From: The Southern European Atlantic Diet and all-cause mortality in older adults

  Deaths Person-years Hazard ratio [95% CI]
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
SEAD score based on sex-specific medians of food consumption
 Per 1-SD increment 646 32,158 0.85 [0.78, 0.93]*** 0.86 [0.79, 0.94]** 0.86 [0.78, 0.94]***
 Quartilesa
  1 (lower adherence) 181 6728 1 1 1
  2 159 7733 0.79 [0.60, 1.04] 0.83 [0.64, 1.08] 0.83 [0.64, 1.09]
  3 145 8084 0.63 [0.48, 0.83]*** 0.66 [0.50, 0.87]** 0.66 [0.50, 0.87]**
  4 (higher adherence) 162 9613 0.66 [0.52, 0.85]** 0.68 [0.53, 0.88]** 0.67 [0.52, 0.87]**
Sensitivity analyses
SEAD score based on sex-specific quartiles of food consumption
 Per 1-SD increment 646 32,158 0.88 [0.80, 0.96]** 0.87 [0.80, 0.96]** 0.86 [0.79, 0.95]**
 Quartilesb
  1 (lower adherence) 197 7693 1 1 1
  2 192 9800 0.81 [0.64, 1.03] 0.81 [0.64, 1.03] 0.81 [0.64, 1.03]
  3 110 6389 0.65 [0.50, 0.86]** 0.68 [0.51, 0.89]** 0.67 [0.51, 0.88]**
  4 (higher adherence) 147 8276 0.70 [0.55, 0.89]** 0.70 [0.55, 0.90]** 0.68 [0.53, 0.88]**
SEAD score based on frequency of food consumption
 Per 1-SD increment 646 32,158 0.80 [0.73, 0.89]*** 0.79 [0.71, 0.87]*** 0.78 [0.70, 0.86]***
 Quartilesc
  1 (lower adherence) 193 6863 1 1 1
  2 156 8060 0.76 [0.59, 0.97]* 0.74 [0.58, 0.96]* 0.75 [0.58, 0.96]*
  3 166 8043 0.77 [0.60, 0.98]* 0.76 [0.59, 0.97]* 0.76 [0.60, 0.97]*
  4 (higher adherence) 132 9192 0.61 [0.47, 0.80]*** 0.60 [0.46, 0.78]*** 0.58 [0.44, 0.76]***
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  3. aQuartile values of the SEAD score: quartile 1, ≤ 2; quartile 2, 3; quartile 3, 4; quartile 4, ≥ 5. Range [0, 9]
  4. bQuartile values of the SEAD score: quartile 1, ≤ 15; quartile 2, 16 to 18; quartile 3, 19 to 20; quartile 4, ≥ 21. Range [9, 32]
  5. cQuartile values of the SEAD score: quartile 1, ≤ 14; quartile 2, 15; quartile 3, 16; quartile 4, ≥ 17. Range [10, 22]
  6. Model 1: Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for sex, age (years), educational level (primary or less, secondary, or university), and energy intake (kcal/day)
  7. Model 2: as model 1 and further adjusted for smoking status (never, former, or current), diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, musculoskeletal disease, cancer, and depression at baseline, and 3-year cumulative leisure-time physical activity (MET-hours/week), sedentary behavior (TV hours/day), and body mass index (kg/m2)
  8. Model 3: as model 2 and further adjusted for 3-year cumulative white meat, fruit, and refined grains consumption