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Table 1 Descriptive baseline characteristics of participants

From: Relationship between diet quality scores and the risk of frailty and mortality in adults across a wide age spectrum

Characteristics, mean ± SD or N (%) All participants 8-year mortality
Alive
N = 14,078
Deceased
N = 1171
Age (year) 47.2 ± 16.7 46.1 ± 16.1 67.1 ± 14.7
Sex, female 7769 (51.7) 7289 (52.1) 480 (44.9)
Race
 Non-Hispanic white 6949 (69.2) 6263 (68.9) 686 (9.3)
 Non-Hispanic black 3142 (10.8) 2907 (10.7) 235 (75.2)
 Hispanic 3964 (13.6) 3763 (13.8) 201 (11.3)
 Other 1194 (6.4) 1145 (6.5) 49 (4.2)
Education
 Less than high school 4170 (18.2) 3702 (17.4) 468 (32.4)
 High school 3480 (22.6) 3189 (22.4) 291 (26.9)
 Some college/ associate education 4291 (30.7) 4031 (31.0) 260 (25.8)
 College graduate or more 3291 (28.5) 3143 (29.2) 148 (15.0)
Marital status
 Married 9020 (63.5) 8444 (64.2) 576 (50.7)
 Widowed 1276 (5.7) 946 (4.6) 330 (26.5)
 Divorced or separated 2179 (12.6) 2002 (12.5) 177 (14.5)
 Never married 2769 (18.1) 2681 (18.7) 88 (8.3)
Full-time working 8278 (63.0) 8069 (65.3) 209 (22.7)
Smoking status
 Never 8253 (54.6) 7771 (55.3) 482 (42.1)
 Former 3739 (24.7) 3268 (23.9) 471 (38.7)
 Current 3252 (20.7) 3034 (20.8) 218 (19.2)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 < 18.5 251 (1.7) 221 (1.6) 30 (2.9)
 18.5–24.9 4174 (29.5) 3864 (29.6) 310 (27.8)
 25.0–29.9 5071 (33.9) 4668 (33.8) 403 (34.7)
 ≥ 30 5595 (34.9) 5224 (35.0) 371 (34.6)
Energy intake (Kcal) 2182.3 ± 999.1 2199.1 ± 1000.6 1882.7 ± 920.8
NI score (0 to 1) 0.34 ± 0.15 0.33 ± 0.15 0.41 ± 0.16
E-DII score (− 5.81 to 4.82) 0.35 ± 1.97 0.37 ± 1.97 0.15 ± 1.92
HEI-2015 score (0 to 100) 51.2 ± 13.6 51.1 ± 13.6 51.8 ± 13.1
MDS (0 to 10) 4.0 ± 1.6 4.0 ± 1.6 4.0 ± 1.5
DASH score (0 to 9) 2.5 ± 1.6 2.5 ± 1.5 2.5 ± 1.6
FI score (0 to 1) 0.10 ± 0.10 0.09 ± 0.09 0.24 ± 0.15
  1. DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, E-DII Energy-density Dietary Inflammatory Index, FI Frailty index, HEI-2015 Healthy Eating Index-2015, Kcal kilocalories, kg kilogram, m meter, MDS Mediterranean Diet Score, NI Nutrition Index. Higher NI and E-DII scores and lower HEI-2015, MDS, and DASH scores represent worse dietary pattern/intake. The percentages and mean values are weighted with sampling weights
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