Skip to main content

Table 3 Relationship between dietary scores and mortality, using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analysis

From: Relationship between diet quality scores and the risk of frailty and mortality in adults across a wide age spectrum

Dietary scores 3-year mortality
Deceased, N (%) = 509 (2.4)
8-year mortality
Deceased, N (%) = 1171 (5.3)
Hazard ratio (95%CI) p value Hazard ratio (95%CI) p value
Adjusted for age, sex, race, educational level, marital status, employment status, smoking, study cohort, and BMI (basic covariates)
 NI (per 0.1 point) 1.16 (1.09,1.22) < 0.001 1.14 (1.09,1.18) < 0.001
 E-DII (per 1 point) 1.03 (0.98,1.08) 0.201 1.04 (1.01,1.08) 0.008
 HEI-2015 (per 10 points) 0.92 (0.86,0.98) 0.015 0.92 (0.88,0.96) < 0.001
 MDS (per 1 point)* 0.93 (0.87,0.98) 0.013 0.93 (0.89,0.96) < 0.001
 DASH (per 1 point) 0.96 (0.90,1.01) 0.121 0.96 (0.93,0.99) 0.038
Adjusted for basic covariates and FI
 NI (per 0.1 point) 1.11 (1.04,1.17) 0.001 1.15 (1.10,1.21) < 0.001
 E-DII (per 1 point) 1.03 (0.99,1.08) 0.185 1.05 (1.01,1.08) 0.007
 HEI-2015 (per 10 points) 0.93 (0.86,0.99) 0.028 0.93 (0.89,0.97) 0.002
 MDS (per 1 point)* 0.94 (0.88,0.99) 0.046 0.94 (0.90,0.97) 0.001
 DASH (per 1 point) 0.96 (0.90,1.01) 0.113 0.96 (0.93,0.99) 0.040
 E-DII (per 1 point) 1.01 (0.96,1.06) 0.791 1.02 (0.99,1.06) 0.198
 E-DII squared 0.98 (0.96,1.00) 0.072 0.99 (0.97,0.99) 0.043
 NI (per 0.1 point) 1.10 (1.04,1.17) 0.002 1.08 (1.04,1.13) < 0.001
 HEI-2015 (per 10 points) 0.95 (0.88,1.02) 0.164 0.95 (0.91,0.99) 0.037
 NI (per 0.1 point) 1.09 (1.04,1.16) 0.005 1.08 (1.04,1.12) < 0.001
 MDS (per 1 point) 0.95 (0.89,1.01) 0.106 0.94 (0.91,0.98) 0.004
 NI (per 0.1 point) 1.10 (1.04,1.17) 0.002 1.08 (1.04,1.13) < 0.001
 DASH (per 1 point) 0.96 (0.91,1.02) 0.166 0.97 (0.93,1.00) 0.062
 NI (per 0.1 point) 1.10 (1.04,1.17) 0.001 1.09 (1.05,1.13) < 0.001
 HEI-2015 (per 10 points) 0.91 (0.83,1.00) 0.057 0.94 (0.88,0.99) 0.045
 E-DII (per 1 point) 0.98 (0.92,1.05) 0.595 1.01 (0.97,1.05) 0.724
 E-DII squared 0.98 (0.96,1.00) 0.057 0.99 (0.97,0.99) 0.036
 MDS (per 1 point) 0.94 (0.88,1.01) 0.083 0.94 (0.90,0.99) 0.009
 E-DII (per 1 point) 1.01 (0.95,1.06) 0.855 1.02 (0.98,1.06) 0.309
 E-DII squared 0.98 (0.96,1.00) 0.058 0.99 (0.97,0.99) 0.033
 DASH (per 1 point) 0.97 (0.90,1.05) 0.411 0.99 (0.94,1.04) 0.735
 E-DII (per 1 point) 1.01 (0.95,1.08) 0.689 1.04 (0.99,1.08) 0.090
 MDS (per 1 point) 0.97 (0.90,1.04) 0.352 0.96 (0.91,1.00) 0.059
 HEI-2015 (per 10 points) 0.95 (0.87,1.03) 0.188 0.96 (0.91,1.01) 0.113
 DASH (per 1 point) 0.99 (0.92,1.06) 0.741 0.99 (0.95,1.04) 0.728
 HEI-2015 (per 10 points) 0.93 (0.86,1.01) 0.102 0.94 (0.87,0.99) 0.016
 DASH (per 1 point) 0.97 (0.91,1.03) 0.290 0.98 (0.94,1.01) 0.193
 MDS (per 1 point) 0.95 (0.98,1.01) 0.093 0.94 (0.90,0.98) 0.004
  1. 2007–2012 NHANES cohorts were included in the analysis and mortality was identified up to December 2015. Higher NI and E-DII scores and lower HEI-2015, MDS, and DASH scores represents worse dietary pattern/intake. In an initial model we tested the linear relationship, in the second model we added the squared term, and in the third model, we added the cubic term. We present results only for the highest order model that was statistically significant. If none of the models were statistically significant, we present the linear model
  2. BMI body mass index, DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, E-DII Energy-density Dietary Inflammatory Index, FI Frailty index, HEI-2015 Healthy Eating Index-2015, MDS Mediterranean Diet Score, NI Nutrition Index
  3. *This regression model was additionally adjusted for energy intake
\