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Table 3 Summary of permutation test on the proportion of individuals with decreased contacts and paired mean difference before and after 10 pm and Rule of Six restrictions by age

From: The impact of local and national restrictions in response to COVID-19 on social contacts in England: a longitudinal natural experiment

Comparison with proportion decreased        
Restriction Contacts N Adults Children Decreased Same Increased P value
ROS
 5–17 Exclude work and school 464 0 464 167 (36%) 179 (38.6%) 118 (25.4%) 0.0022
 18–39 Exclude work and school 816 816 0 291 (35.7%) 343 (42%) 182 (22.3%) < 0.001
 40–59 Exclude work and school 1193 1193 0 396 (33.2%) 488 (40.9%) 309 (25.9%) 0.0005
 60+ Exclude work and school 1225 1225 0 403 (32.9%) 475 (38.8%) 347 (28.3%) 0.0219
10 pm
 5–17 Exclude work and school 550 0 550 167 (30.4%) 239 (43.5%) 144 (26.2%) 0.1062
 18–39 Exclude work and school 813 813 0 243 (29.9%) 376 (46.2%) 194 (23.9%) 0.0103
 40–59 Exclude work and school 1134 1134 0 350 (30.9%) 507 (44.7%) 277 (24.4%) 0.002
 60+ Exclude work and school 1196 1196 0 395 (33%) 453 (37.9%) 348 (29.1%) 0.0452
Comparison in mean difference Median (IQR)   Mean  
Restriction Contacts Before After   Before After Difference (95% CI) P value
ROS
 5–17 Exclude work and school 3 (2 to 4) 3 (2 to 4)   3.93 4.09 0.17 (− 0.35 to 0.76) 0.5668
 18–39 Exclude work and school 2 (1 to 3) 2 (1 to 3)   2.89 2.3 − 0.59 (− 1.09 to − 0.04) 0.0183
 40–59 Exclude work and school 2 (1 to 3) 2 (1 to 3)   2.61 2.31 − 0.3 (− 0.67 to 0.03) 0.1055
 60+ Exclude work and school 2 (1 to 3) 2 (1 to 3)   2.56 2.6 0.04 (− 0.39 to 0.52) 0.8797
10 pm
 5–17 Exclude work and school 3 (2 to 4) 3 (2 to 4)   3.85 4.84 0.98 (0.28 to 1.81) 0.0115
 18–39 Exclude work and school 2 (1 to 3) 2 (1 to 3)   2.7 2.57 − 0.13 (− 0.72 to 0.5) 0.649
 40–59 Exclude work and school 2 (1 to 3) 1 (1 to 3)   2.4 2.54 0.14 (− 0.37 to 0.65) 0.6183
 60+ Exclude work and school 2 (1 to 3) 1 (1 to 3)   2.54 2.09 − 0.45 (− 0.88 to − 0.12) 0.0039
  1. Two-sided p value calculated by counting the number of permutations where the magnitude of the test statistics is greater than the observed test statistics, and dividing by the number of permutations
  2. ROS Rule of Six, IQR inter-quartile range