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Table 1 Cognitive domains, scoring and sample items of the BDST

From: Sensitivity and specificity of the Bamberg Dementia Screening Test’s (BDST) full and short versions: brief screening instruments for geriatric patients that are suitable for infectious environments

Cognitive domain Task and sample item
Semantic memory
(5 items, maximum score: 10 points)
Items 1 to 4
Verbal descriptions of animals are given (e.g., “What is the name of the animal with the very long neck”). If the correct name is given (“giraffe”), 2 points are awarded. Otherwise, an additional hint is given (e.g., “The animal lives in Africa and has a yellow –brownish pattern”). If the answer is now correct, 1 point is awarded.
Item 5 serves as distractor item:
“Are people more afraid of a lion or a rabbit?”
If the answer is “lion,” 1 point is scored and an additional question is asked: “Why should you be more afraid of a lion?” For a correct answer (“dangerous,” “carnivore,” etc., not: “bigger”), the participant receives another point.
Verbal memory
(4 items, maximum score: 8 points)
Free recall
“What animals did I ask you about before we talked about the lion and the rabbit?” For each animal that was remembered correctly, 2 points are given.
Recognition
For each animal that could not be remembered, the participant is allowed to choose between three options (“Did I ask about a leopard, a giraffe or a parrot?”). If the correct animal is selected, 1 point is awarded.
Visual construction
(4 items, maximum score: 8 points)
The participant is asked to draw shapes with the index finger. “Please watch carefully [administrator draws a symbol with her/his index finger] and then try to draw the following shapes in the air.
Example:
If the shape is drawn correctly by the participant (shape can be clearly recognized, regardless if a mirror image is drawn or not) 2 points are awarded. If not, the shape is repeated by the administrator (“I’ll draw the shape again …. Please try again now”). If the shape is now drawn correctly, 1 point is awarded.
Verbal fluency
(1 item, maximum score: 8 points)
Naming of larger cities (≥ 50,000 inhabitants) anywhere in the world in 60 s. 1 point is awarded for each 3 cities (8 points for 24 or more cities).
Visual memory
(4 items, maximum score: 8 points)
Free recall
“What figures did we draw in the air before we talked about big cities?” For each shape that was remembered correctly, 2 points are given.
Recognition
For the remaining shapes that could not be remembered, hints are given (“one shape looked like a letter”). If the correct shape is drawn, one point is awarded.
Cognitive flexibility
(4 items, maximum score: 8 points)
The participant is asked to reproduce tapping patterns given by the administrator (“Please watch carefully and then try tapping the same pattern”).

If the pattern is reproduced correctly, 2 points are awarded. If not, the pattern is given again by the administrator (“I’ll tap the pattern again …. Please try again now”). If the pattern is now reproduced correctly, 1 point is awarded.