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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study according to butter and margarine consumption

From: Cooking oil/fat consumption and deaths from cardiometabolic diseases and other causes: prospective analysis of 521,120 individuals

  Butter consumption Margarine consumption
Characteristics Non-consumers T1 T2 T3 Non-consumers T1 T2 T3
Range (g 2000 kcal−1 d−1) 0 ≤ 3.1 3.2–8.5 ≥ 8.6 0 ≤5.7 5.8–13.7 ≥13.8
n 303,987 72,377 72,378 72,378 134,374 128,915 128,916 128,915
Age (y) 63.0 62.2 62.5 63.1 62.5 62.3 62.8 63.6
Male (%) 58.4 65.1 61.2 51.7 56.3 64.3 62.7 52.0
BMI (kg/m2) 26.4 26.1 26.5 26.4 26.1 26.2 26.6 26.5
Race (%)
 White 92.3 89.4 91.3 92.6 91.7 89.9 92.5 93.0
 Black 3.8 3.1 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.5 4.0
 Hispanic 1.6 3.0 2.1 1.3 1.7 2.7 1.7 1.1
 Asian 0.9 2.6 1.4 0.9 1.2 2.1 0.8 0.5
Married (%) 69.9 68.1 67.9 63.0 65.5 69.7 71.0 67.6
Annual household income (USD)a 47,243 51,690 50,330 49,925 50,282 50,557 48,047 46,077
College graduate or postgraduate (%) 37.3 47.5 39.8 36.8 40.1 44.6 38.2 33.2
Current smoker (%) 10.8 9.1 13.2 16.1 12.9 9.6 12.0 12.1
Physical activity, ≥ 5 times/wk (%) 19.4 22.1 17.6 16.3 19.8 21.6 18.0 17.1
Heart disease (%) 15.7 12.9 11.5 10.5 12.2 13.8 14.3 15.7
Stroke (%) 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.5
Cancer (%) 9.1 8.4 8.6 9.7 9.0 8.4 8.9 9.7
Diabetes (%) 9.6 7.4 8.3 9.2 7.8 7.7 9.3 11.6
Fair or poor health (%) 13.5 10.7 12.0 13.5 12.0 11.2 12.9 15.4
Currently using multivitamins (%) 55.8 56.6 55.2 54.8 56.1 56.4 55.0 55.2
Daily use of aspirin (%) 16.2 14.4 13.0 11.9 13.5 15.2 15.2 15.8
Daily dietary intake
 Total energy (kcal/d) 1666.6 1651.6 1759.3 1749.3 1711.1 1649.3 1733.4 1661.4
 Alcohol from alcoholic drinks (g/d) 1.5 2.5 2.7 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.2
 Total protein (% of energy) 15.5 15.6 15.2 14.6 15.0 15.7 15.5 15.2
 Total fat (% of energy) 29.8 26.6 31.1 35.0 31.1 26.6 30.4 32.8
 Butter 0.0 1.0 5.5 13.7 4.0 0.3 0.0 0.0
 Margarine 10.4 1.1 4.3 0.0 0.0 2.4 9.3 20.6
 Corn oil 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
 Canola oil 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
 Olive oil 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
 Healthy Eating Index score 70.5 70.4 66.4 61.6 65.8 70.1 68.6 70.2
  1. Data are medians or percentages. BMI body mass index, T tertile
  2. aHousehold income in 1999