Skip to main content

Table 2 HRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality according to cooking oil/fat consumption

From: Cooking oil/fat consumption and deaths from cardiometabolic diseases and other causes: prospective analysis of 521,120 individuals

  Categories of individual cooking oil/fat consumption  
Non-consumers T1 T2 T3 P trend
Butter
 Median intake (IQR) 0 1.0 (0.4–2.0) 5.5 (4.2–6.9) 13.7 (10.7–18.8)  
 Death cases/n 75,826/303,987 15,792/72,377 17,915/72,378 19,795/72,378  
 Person-years 4,262,749 1,030,708 1,014,202 999,439  
 Model 1a 1.00 0.88 (0.86–0.89) 1.02 (1.00–1.03) 1.14 (1.13–1.16) < 0.001
 Model 2b 1.00 0.96 (0.94–0.97) 1.04 (1.02–1.06) 1.12 (1.10–1.14) < 0.001
 Model 3c 1.00 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 1.05 (1.03–1.06) 1.09 (1.07–1.11) < 0.001
Margarine
 Median intake (IQR) 0 2.4 (0.9–4.0) 9.3 (7.4–11.4) 20.6 (16.7–26.6)  
 Death cases/n 32,633/134,374 29,070/128,915 32,583/128,916 35,042/128,915  
 Person-years 1,888,086 1,829,523 1,804,411 1,785,077  
 Model 1a 1.00 0.90 (0.89–0.92) 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 1.08 (1.06–1.09) < 0.001
 Model 2b 1.00 0.94 (0.92–0.95) 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 1.00 (0.99–1.02) < 0.001
 Model 3c 1.00 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.07 (1.05–1.09) < 0.001
Corn oil
 Median intake (IQR) 0 0.4 (0.2–0.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 3.4 (2.4–5.5)  
 Death cases/n 98,499/399,360 9400/40586 10,240/40,587 11,189/40,587  
 Person-years 5,605,569 574,055 567,538 559,935  
 Model 1a 1.00 0.95 (0.93–0.97) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.12 (1.10–1.14) < 0.001
 Model 2b 1.00 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 0.21
 Model 3c 1.00 0.97 (0.94–0.99) 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.092
Canola oil
 Median intake (IQR) 0 0.4 (0.2–0.5) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 3.2 (2.3–5.3)  
 Death cases/n 95,507/376,913 10,571/48,069 11,129/48,069 12,121/48,069  
 Person-years 5,269,352 684,537 680,475 672,733  
 Model 1a 1.00 0.88 (0.86–0.89) 0.91 (0.89–0.92) 0.98 (0.96–0.99) < 0.001
 Model 2b 1.00 0.94 (0.93–0.96) 0.96 (0.94–0.97) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) < 0.001
 Model 3c 1.00 0.98 (0.95–1.00) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) < 0.001
Olive oil
 Median intake (IQR) 0 0.4 (0.3–0.5) 1.2 (0.9–1.5) 3.8 (2.6–6.2)  
 Death cases/n 91,948/353,766 11,878/55,784 12,386/55,785 13,116/55,785  
 Person-years 4,930,793 796,402 793,033 786,869  
 Model 1a 1.00 0.85 (0.84–0.87) 0.87 (0.86–0.89) 0.91 (0.89–0.93) < 0.001
 Model 2b 1.00 0.94 (0.92–0.96) 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) < 0.001
 Model 3c 1.00 0.96 (0.94–0.99) 0.97 (0.95–0.98) 0.96 (0.95–0.98) < 0.001
  1. HRs (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, T tertile
  2. aAdjusted for age and sex
  3. bAdditionally adjusted for BMI (in kg/m2; < 18.5, 18.5 to 25, 25 to 30, 30 to 35, ≥ 35, or missing), race (white, black, Hispanic/Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaskan native, or unknown/missing), education (less than high school, high school graduate, some college, college graduate, or unknown/missing), marital status (married/living as married or widowed/divorced/separated/never married/unknown), household income (quintiles), smoking (never smoked; quit, ≤ 20 cigarettes a day; quit, > 20 cigarettes a day; currently smoking, ≤ 20 cigarettes a day; currently smoking, > 20 cigarettes a day; or unknown), alcohol (0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–29.9, or ≥ 30 g/day), vigorous physical activity (never/rarely, 1–3 times/month, 1–2 times/week, 3–4 times/week, ≥ 5 times/week, or unknown/missing), usual activity at work (sit all day, sit much of the day/walk sometimes, stand/walk often/no lifting, lift/carry light loads, and carry heavy loads), perceived health condition (excellent, very good, good, fair or poor),and history of heart disease (yes or no), stroke (yes or no), diabetes (yes or no), and cancer (yes or no) at baseline
  4. cAdditionally adjusted for Healthy Eating Index-2015, total energy intake, and consumption of remaining oils where appropriate (butter, margarine, lard, corn oil, canola oil, olive oil, and other vegetable oils)