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Table 3 HRs (95% CIs) of CVD and diabetes mortality according to cooking oil/fat consumption

From: Cooking oil/fat consumption and deaths from cardiometabolic diseases and other causes: prospective analysis of 521,120 individuals

  Categories of individual cooking oil/fat consumption  
Non-consumers T1 T2 T3 P trend
Cardiovascular disease mortality
Butter
  Death cases/n 23,406/303,987 4623/72,377 5213/72,378 5505/72,378  
  Model 1a 1.00 0.83 (0.80–0.86) 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 1.04 (1.01–1.07) < 0.001
  Model 2b 1.00 0.93 (0.90–0.96) 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 1.07 (1.04–1.11) < 0.001
  Model 3c 1.00 0.96 (0.93–1.00) 1.04 (1.01–1.08) 1.08 (1.05–1.12) < 0.001
Margarine
  Death cases/n 9305/134,374 8630/128,915 9901/128,916 10,911/128,915  
  Model 1a 1.00 0.93 (0.90–0.96) 1.06 (1.03–1.09) 1.17 (1.14–1.21) < 0.001
  Model 2b 1.00 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 1.04 (1.01–1.07) < 0.001
  Model 3c 1.00 1.01 (0.97–1.04) 1.06 (1.02–1.09) 1.10 (1.06–1.14) < 0.001
Corn oil
  Death cases/n 29,443/399,360 2830/40,586 3068/40,587 3406/40,587  
  Model 1a 1.00 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 1.14 (1.10–1.18) < 0.001
  Model 2b 1.00 0.99 (0.96–1.03) 1.00 (0.97–1.04) 1.02 (0.99–1.06) 0.22
  Model 3c 1.00 1.01 (0.96–1.05) 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 1.00 (0.96–1.03) 0.78
Canola oil
  Death cases/n 28,520/376,913 3149/48,069 3362/48,069 3716/48,069  
  Model 1a 1.00 0.89 (0.85–0.92) 0.93 (0.89–0.96) 1.01 (0.97–1.04) 0.70
  Model 2b 1.00 0.96 (0.92–1.00) 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 0.080
  Model 3c 1.00 0.99 (0.95–1.04) 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 0.97 (0.94–1.00) 0.052
Olive oil
  Death cases/n 27,962/353,766 3377/55,784 3578/55,785 3830/55,785  
  Model 1a 1.00 0.81 (0.78–0.84) 0.84 (0.81–0.87) 0.88 (0.85–0.91) < 0.001
  Model 2b 1.00 0.92 (0.89–0.96) 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 0.002
  Model 3c 1.00 0.93 (0.89–0.97) 0.95 (0.92–0.99) 0.95 (0.92–0.99) 0.001
Diabetes mortality
Butter
  Death cases/n 389/72,377 427/72,378 537/72,378 3512/72,378  
  Model 1a 1.00 0.75 (0.67–0.83) 0.84 (0.76–0.94) 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 0.062
  Model 2b 1.00 0.93 (0.84–1.04) 0.96 (0.86–1.06) 1.11 (1.01–1.22) 0.037
  Model 3c 1.00 0.97 (0.86–1.09) 0.99 (0.89–1.11) 1.18 (1.06–1.32) 0.004
Margarine
  Death cases/n 782/134,374 732/128,915 896/128,916 1102/128,915  
  Model 1a 1.00 0.94 (0.85–1.04) 1.16 (1.05–1.27) 1.44 (1.32–1.58) < 0.001
  Model 2b 1.00 0.97 (0.88–1.07) 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 1.06 (0.96–1.16) 0.091
  Model 3c 1.00 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 1.08 (0.97–1.21) 1.12 (1.00–1.26) 0.047
Corn oil
  Death cases/n 2670/399,360 235/40,586 296/40,587 311/40,587  
  Model 1a 1.00 0.88 (0.77–1.00) 1.09 (0.97–1.23) 1.15 (1.03–1.30) 0.009
  Model 2b 1.00 0.94 (0.82–1.08) 1.06 (0.94–1.19) 0.95 (0.85–1.07) 0.56
  Model 3c 1.00 0.96 (0.83–1.12) 1.02 (0.90–1.16) 0.95 (0.84–1.07) 0.41
Canola oil
  Death cases/n 2560/376,913 270/48,069 325/48,069 357/48,069  
  Model 1a 1.00 0.84 (0.74–0.95) 1.00 (0.89–1.12) 1.09 (0.97–1.21) 0.14
  Model 2b 1.00 0.99 (0.87–1.12) 1.10 (0.98–1.23) 0.99 (0.88–1.10) 0.95
  Model 3c 1.00 1.07 (0.92–1.24) 1.08 (0.96–1.22) 0.99 (0.88–1.11) 0.96
Olive oil
  Death cases/n 2635/353,766 257/55,784 309/55,785 311/55,785  
  Model 1a 1.00 0.64 (0.56–0.73) 0.76 (0.67–0.85) 0.75 (0.67–0.84) < 0.001
  Model 2b 1.00 0.85 (0.75–0.97) 0.97 (0.86–1.09) 0.87 (0.77–0.98) 0.022
  Model 3c 1.00 0.84 (0.72–0.98) 0.94 (0.83–1.06) 0.87 (0.77–0.99) 0.019
  1. HRs (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, T tertile
  2. aAdjusted for age and sex
  3. bAdditionally adjusted for BMI (in kg/m2; < 18.5, 18.5 to 25, 25 to 30, 30 to 35, ≥ 35, or missing), race (white, black, Hispanic/Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaskan native, or unknown/missing), education (less than high school, high school graduate, some college, college graduate, or unknown/missing), marital status (married/living as married or widowed/divorced/separated/never married/unknown), household income (quintiles), smoking (never smoked; quit, ≤ 20 cigarettes a day; quit, > 20 cigarettes a day; currently smoking, ≤ 20 cigarettes a day; currently smoking, > 20 cigarettes a day; or unknown), alcohol (0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–29.9, or ≥ 30 g/day), vigorous physical activity (never/rarely, 1–3 times/month, 1–2 times/week, 3–4 times/week, ≥5 times/week, or unknown/missing), usual activity at work (sit all day, sit much of the day/walk sometimes, stand/walk often/no lifting, lift/carry light loads, and carry heavy loads), perceived health condition (excellent, very good, good, fair or poor), and history of heart disease (yes or no), stroke (yes or no), diabetes (yes or no), and cancer (yes or no) at baseline
  4. cAdditionally adjusted for Healthy Eating Index-2015, total energy intake, and consumption of remaining oils where appropriate (butter, margarine, lard, corn oil, canola oil, olive oil, and other vegetable oils)